Volume 7.27 | Jul 10

Neural Cell News 7.27 July 10, 2013
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Axonal Alignment and Enhanced Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells on Graphene-Nanoparticle Hybrid Structures
Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) cultured on graphene-nanoparticle hybrid structures showed a unique behavior wherein the axons from the differentiating hNSCs showed enhanced growth and alignment. Scientists showed that the axonal alignment is primarily due to the presence of graphene and the underlying nanoparticle monolayer causes enhanced neuronal differentiation of the hNSCs, thus having great implications of these hybrid-nanostructures for neuro-regenerative medicine. [Adv Mater] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Amplification of Progenitors in the Mammalian Telencephalon Includes a New Radial Glial Cell Type
Researchers present live imaging analysis of radial glial cells and their progeny in the ventral telencephalon, the region with the largest subventricular zone in the murine brain during neurogenesis. They observed lineage amplification by a new type of progenitor, including bipolar radial glial cells dividing at subapical positions and generating further proliferating progeny. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Engineered Neural Tissue for Peripheral Nerve Repair
Self-alignment of Schwann cells within a tethered type-1 collagen matrix, followed by removal of interstitial fluid produces a stable tissue-like biomaterial that recreates the aligned cellular and extracellular matrix architecture associated with nerve grafts. Sheets of this engineered neural tissue supported and directed neuronal growth in a co-culture model, and initial in vivo tests showed that a device containing rods of rolled-up sheets could support neuronal growth during rat sciatic nerve repair. [Biomaterials]
Abstract | Press Release

Interleukin-10 Regulates Progenitor Differentiation and Modulates Neurogenesis on Adult Brain
Investigators report a new role for Interleukin 10 (IL-10) different from its well known anti-inflammatory properties. They revealed that IL-10 receptor is expressed in Nestin+ progenitors restricted to the dorsal subventricular zone in adult brain. Through IL-10 gain models they observed that IL-10 maintains neural progenitors in an undifferentiated stage by keeping progenitors in active cycle and up-regulating the presence of pro-neural genes markers in detriment of neuronal gene expression. [J Cell Sci] Abstract

CXCR4 Signaling Regulates Radial Glial Morphology and Cell Fate during Embryonic Spinal Cord Development
Using fluorescent transgenes, in vivo genetic manipulations and pharmacological techniques, researchers demonstrated that SDF-1 derived from the meninges exerts a CXCR4-dependent effect on radial glia. Deletion of CXCR4 expression by radial glia influences their morphology, mitosis, and progression through both oligodendroglial and astroglial lineages. [Glia] Abstract

Clueless Regulates aPKC Activity and Promotes Self-Renewal Cell Fate in Drosophila lgl Mutant Larval Brains
Scientists identified clueless (clu), a genetic interactor of parkin, as a novel regulator of atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) activity. It preferentially binds to aPKC/ Bazooka/ Partition Defective 6 complex and stabilizes aPKC levels. In clu mutants, Miranda and Numb are mislocalized in small percentages of dividing neuroblasts. [Dev Biol] Abstract

Pronounced Hypoxia in the Subventricular Zone following Traumatic Brain Injury and the Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Response
To determine the cell autonomous effects of hypoxia on EphB3/ephrinB3 signaling in neural stem/progenitor cells, researchers used an in vitro model of hypoxia to mimic 1% oxygen in the presence and absence of soluble aggregated ephrinB3. As expected, hypoxia stimulated the uptake of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine and reduced cell death. [Exp Biol Med] Abstract

Lentivirus-Mediated CD/TK Fusion Gene Transfection Neural Stem Cell Therapy for C6 Glioblastoma
The authors transfected lentivirus-mediated CD/TK fusion gene into Wistar rat’s neural stem cells (NSC) and then implanted the NSC into a C6 glioma model to observe a C6 glioma growth inhibition effect. To observe the tumor size and rat survival period in different groups, C6 glioma cell apoptosis and cell viability rate were applied to analyze the tumor inhibition effect of the neural stem cells’ transfected CD/TK fusion gene. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

Adenosine Potentiates the Therapeutic Effects of Neural Stem Cells Expressing Cytosine Deaminase against Metastatic Brain Tumors
Investigators potentiated a therapeutic strategy of treatment with nucleosides in order to chemically facilitate the endogenous conversion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to its toxic metabolite 5-FU ribonucleoside (5-FUR). In vitro, 5-FUR showed superior cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-435 cancer cells when compared to 5-FU. [Oncol Rep] Abstract

Differential Regulation of SC1/PRDM4 and PRMT5 Mediated Protein Arginine Methylation by the Nerve Growth Factor and the Epidermal Growth Factor in PC12 Cells
The author investigated the regulation of Schwann cell factor 1 (SC1)/protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT)5-mediated methylation activity in PC12 cells treated with epidermal growth factor or nerve growth factor (NGF). She presents evidence that NGF down-regulates SC1/PRMT5 methyltransferase (MTase) activity and that the reduction in SC1/PRMT5 MTase activity occurs mainly in the nucleus. [Neurosci Lett] Full Article

Directed Differentiation of Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells into Cortical GABAergic Neurons
Scientists used purified umbilical cord blood non-hematopoietic stem cells to produced GABAergic neurons with similar developmental and functional characteristics to cortical GABAergic neurons. They analyzed the expression of transcription factors MASH1, DLX1 and DLX2 throughout the 24 days of a sequential neuronal induction protocol and found that their expression patterns resembled those reported in the developing human cortex. [Acta Neurobiol Exp] Abstract | Full Article

Brain Food: NeuroCult SM1 for Long-Term Primary Neuronal Culture. View Data!
 
REVIEWS
Mechanisms of Astrocytogenesis in the Mammalian Brain
The authors introduce recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms that coordinate astrocytogenesis from neural stem cells by modulating signaling pathways and epigenetic programs, with a particular focus on the developing mammalian forebrain. [Curr Opin Neurobiol] Abstract

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Activartis’ Cancer Immunotherapy receives Orphan Drug Designation from FDA
The US FDA notified the Austrian biotech company Activartis that Orphan Drug Designation (ODD) has been granted for its innovative Cancer Immunotherapy AV0113. The ODD applies specifically to the use of AV0113 for the treatment of malignant glioma, a very aggressive type of brain cancer. [Activartis Biotech GmbH] Press Release

BrightFocus Foundation Announces $7.2 Million in New Grants for Alzheimer’s and Vision Disease Research
BrightFocus Foundation, a nonprofit organization that funds innovative, early-stage research on Alzheimer’s disease and the vision diseases of glaucoma and macular degeneration, announced grant awards totaling more than $7.2 million to 53 scientists in 16 states and four foreign countries. [BrightFocus Foundation] Press Release

New EU-Funded Consortium to Develop Fully Personalized Cancer Vaccines for Brain Cancer Patients
The Glioma Actively Personalized VAccine Consortium (GAPVAC) is the first EU-funded initiative aimed at clinically developing biomarker-guided actively personalized vaccines to treat cancer patients. The consortium consists of 14 organizations from the biotech industry and academia with cutting-edge expertise in cancer vaccine development. The consortium will be led by immatics biotechnologies GmbH and BioNTech AG. [BioNTech AG] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW World Congress of Neurology
September 21-26, 2013
Vienna, Austria

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JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Plasticity (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Developmental Neurobiology (North Carolina College of Veterinary Medicine)

PhD Opportunity – Role of Fibroblast Growth Factors in the Generation of Neuronal Diversity in the Spinal Cord (University of East Anglia)


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