Volume 7.24 | Jun 19

Neural Cell News 7.24 June 19 2013
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Tet1 Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Cognition
Scientists demonstrated that Tet1 plays an important role in regulating neural progenitor cell proliferation in adult mouse brain. Mice lacking Tet1 exhibit impaired hippocampal neurogenesis accompanied by poor learning and memory. In adult neural progenitor cells deficient in Tet1, a cohort of genes involved in progenitor proliferation were hypermethylated and downregulated. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract

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Arc/Arg3.1 Is a Postsynaptic Mediator of Activity-Dependent Synapse Elimination in the Developing Cerebellum
Investigators report that the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 mediates elimination of surplus climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the developing cerebellum. CF synapse elimination was accelerated when activity of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing PCs was elevated by two-day photostimulation. [Neuron] Abstract

Recombinant Probes for Visualizing Endogenous Synaptic Proteins in Living Neurons
Researchers generated recombinant antibody-like proteins, termed fibronectin intrabodies generated with mRNA display, that bind endogenous neuronal proteins PSD-95 and Gephyrin with high affinity and that, when fused to GFP, allow excitatory and inhibitory synapses to be visualized in living neurons. [Neuron] Abstract

Aβ Induces Astrocytic Glutamate Release, Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptor Activation, and Synaptic Loss
Using FRET-based glutamate sensor imaging, scientists showed that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) engages α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to induce release of astrocytic glutamate, which in turn activates extrasynaptic NMDA receptors on neurons. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Press Release

Myosin Vb Controls Biogenesis of Post-Golgi Rab10 Carriers during Axon Development
Investigators report that Rab10 interaction with myosin Vb (MYO5B) determines the formation of Rab10 carriers and is important for axon development. Rab10 interacts with the exon D-encoded domain of MYO5B. Downregulating the expression of MYO5B (+D) or blocking its interaction with Rab10 impairs the fission of Rab10 vesicles from trans-Golgi membranes, causes a decrease in the number of Rab10 transport carriers and inhibits axon development in cultured hippocampal neurons. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Necdin Controls Proliferation and Apoptosis of Embryonic Neural Stem Cells in an Oxygen Tension-Dependent Manner
Researchers report that hypoxia induces degradation of the necdin protein in primary neural stem cells (NSCs) by hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome system. Necdin was expressed in primary NSCs prepared from the ganglionic eminences of mouse embryos. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Imaging a Population Code for Odor Identity in the Drosophila Mushroom Body
Researchers used two-photon Ca2+ imaging to record odor-evoked responses from >100 neurons simultaneously in the Drosophila mushroom body (MB). For the first time, they demonstrated quantitatively that MB population responses contain substantial information on odor identity. [J Neurosci]
Abstract | Press Release

Endothelial Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Glioma Tumors: Implications for Cell Based Therapy
Researchers used a bioluminescence imaging platform to analyze the behavior of bioluminescent human adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) expressing HSV-tTK in a U87 glioma model and gain insight into the therapeutic mechanisms. Tumor implanted hAMSCs expressed the endothelial marker PECAM1, integrated in tumor vessels and associated with CD133 expressing glioma stem cells. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Glycation Exacerbates the Neuronal Toxicity of β-Amyloid
Researchers treated primary hippocampal neurons cultured eight days in vitro with Aβ-AGE or Aβ for 24 hours. They observed that glycation exacerbated neurotoxicity of Aβ with upregulation of receptor for AGE (RAGE) and activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), whereas simultaneous application of RAGE antibody or GSK-3 inhibitor reversed the neuronal damages aggravated by glycated Aβ. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Apolipoprotein E-Dependent Differences in Innate Immune Responses of Maturing Human Neuroepithelial Progenitor Cells Exposed to HIV-1
To investigate the effects of HIV exposure on neurogenesis and neuronal survival in the brain, the authors used a model system consisting of human neuroepithelial progenitor (NEP) cells that undergo directed differentiation into astrocytes and neurons in vitro. Changes in gene expression in NEP cultures as a result of HIV exposure were investigated using gene expression microarrays with the Illumina HT-12 V4_0_R1 platform array. They identified a group of genes specifically upregulated by exposure to virus that are strongly related to interferon induced responses and antigen presentation. [J Neuroimmune Pharm] Abstract

Two Pore Channel 2 Differentially Modulates Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
Scientists examined the role of TPC2 signaling in the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. They found that the expression of TPC2 was markedly decreased during the initial ES cell entry into neural progenitors, and the levels of TPC2 gradually rebounded during the late stages of neurogenesis. [PLoS One] Full Article

Calorie Restriction Alleviates the Age-Related Decrease in Neural Progenitor Cell Division in the Aging Brain
Using a reporter line in which neural stem and progenitor cells are marked by the expression of green fluorescent protein, scientists examined the effect of prolonged exposure to calorie restriction (CR) or rapamycin on hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation in aging mice. They showed that CR increased the number of dividing cells in the dentate gyrus of female mice. [Eur J Neurosci] Abstract

Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay


Remodeling Neurodegeneration: Somatic Cell Reprogramming-Based Models of Adult Neurological Disorders
Epigenetic reprogramming of adult human somatic cells to alternative fates, such as the conversion of human skin fibroblasts to induced pluripotency stem cells, has enabled the generation of novel cellular models of CNS disorders. Cell reprogramming models appear particularly promising in the context of human neurological disorders of aging such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, for which animal models may not recapitulate key aspects of disease pathology. [Neuron]
Abstract | Full Article

NF-κB: Emerging Roles in Hippocampal Development and Function
The two best studied members of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) family are the p65 and the p50 proteins. The authors outline recent development regarding the functions of these proteins in regulating hippocampal neurogenesis, neuronal growth and learning and memory and discuss the implications of their dysregulation during the development of the nervous system. [Int J Biochem Cell B] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.

NeuroDerm Announces Presentation of Data from Studies Evaluating ND0612, an Investigational Levodopa Continuous Administration Drug, in Healthy Volunteers and in Patients with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease
NeuroDerm, Ltd. announced that results from a phase I study in volunteers, and preliminary results from a phase IIA study in advanced Parkinson’s patients, of ND0612, were presented. [Press release from PR Newswire Association LLC discussing research presented at the 2013 International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders, Sydney] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free wallchart from Nature Neuroscience – Neural Stem Cells. Request your copy.

First Science Star for Wales Announced
A world-leading neurobiologist who will take up a post at Cardiff University as the first appointment under the Welsh Government’s £50 million flagship science initiative has been welcomed to Wales and Cardiff by First Minister for Wales and the Minister for Economy & Science. [Cardiff University] Press Release

Amarantus Engages BD Biosciences for Development of Alzheimer’s Diagnostic
Amarantus BioScience Holdings, Inc. announced it has signed a laboratory services agreement with BD Biosciences under which BD’s BD Biosciences Custom Technology Team will perform sample analysis on Amarantus’ LymPro Test® for Alzheimer’s disease. [Amarantus BioScience Holdings, Inc.] Press Release

Parkinson’s Disease Foundation Announces New Leadership
The Parkinson’s Disease Foundation announced the election of two new leaders: Howard D. Morgan, a senior partner at a leading private equity firm in New York, as Chair, and Constance Woodruff Atwell, Ph.D., a former high level official at the National Institutes of Health, as Vice Chair. [Parkinson’s Disease Foundation] Press Release


National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)


NEW 14th International TNF Conference: Tumor Necrosis Factor 2013
July 7-10, 2013
Quebec City, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.


NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Plasticity (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH)

Postdoctoral Research Assistant – Dynamics of Cell Polarity (University of Dundee, College of Life Sciences)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Developmental Neurobiology (North Carolina College of Veterinary Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuronal Differentiation and Migration (Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique)

Postdoctoral Fellow (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Assistant or Associate Professor of Neuroscience (University of Virginia)

Research Fellow – Neural Stem Cells/Neurogenesis (Ikerbasque, the Basque Foundation for Science)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

PhD Opportunity – Role of Fibroblast Growth Factors in the Generation of Neuronal Diversity in the Spinal Cord (University of East Anglia)

Doctoral Studentship – Neural Cell Physiology (CNR-ISMN)

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