Volume 7.23 | Jun 12

Neural Cell News 7.23 June 12, 2013
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Dynamics of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans
Researchers assessed the generation of hippocampal cells in humans by measuring the concentration of nuclear-bomb-test-derived 14C in genomic DNA, and they present an integrated model of the cell turnover dynamics. They found that a large subpopulation of hippocampal neurons constituting one-third of the neurons is subject to exchange. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Your Free Copy of the Nature Neuroscience Poster "Neural Stem Cells" Awaits
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Sustained Mobilization of Endogenous Neural Progenitors Delays Disease Progression in a Transgenic Model of Huntington’s Disease
Investigators found that a single intracerebroventricular injection of the adeno-associated viruses AAV4-BDNF and AAV4-noggin triggered the sustained recruitment of new medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) in both wild-type and R6/2 mice, a model of Huntington’s disease. Mice treated with AAV4-BDNF/noggin or with BDNF and noggin proteins actively recruited subependymal progenitor cells to form new MSNs that matured and achieved circuit integration. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Press Release

Arc in the Nucleus Regulates PML-Dependent GluA1 Transcription and Homeostatic Plasticity
Scientists found that murine Arc nuclear expression is regulated by synaptic activity in vivo and in vitro. They identified distinct regions of Arc that control its localization, including a nuclear localization signal, a nuclear retention domain and a nuclear export signal. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

Dscam Expression Levels Determine Presynaptic Arbor Sizes in Drosophila Sensory Neurons
Scientists showed that Down syndrome cell-adhesion molecule (Dscam) expression levels serve as an instructive code for the size control of presynaptic arbor. Two convergent pathways, involving dual leucine zipper kinase and fragile X mental retardation protein, control Dscam expression through protein translation. [Neuron] Abstract

Rapid Single-Step Induction of Functional Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
The authors showed that human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can be converted into functional induced neuronal cells with nearly 100% yield and purity in less than two weeks by forced expression of a single transcription factor. [Neuron]
Abstract | Full Article

Bimodal Control of Dendritic and Axonal Growth by the Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase Pathway
Researchers investigated a novel regulatory mechanism that differentially directs dendritic and axonal growth within the same neuron in vivo. They found that the dual leucine zipper kinase signaling pathway in Drosophila, which consists of Highwire and Wallenda and controls axonal growth, regeneration, and degeneration, is also involved in dendritic growth in vivo. [PLoS Biol] Full Article

MYC Inhibition Induces Metabolic Changes Leading to Accumulation of Lipid Droplets in Tumor Cells
MYCN amplification leads to poor clinical outcome in childhood neuroblastoma, yet strategies to modulate the function of MYCN do not exist. Investigators showed that 10058-F4, a characterized c-MYC/Max inhibitor, also targets the MYCN/Max interaction, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and neuronal differentiation in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells and to increased survival of MYCN transgenic mice. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Conserved MicroRNA Pathway Regulates Developmental Timing of Retinal Neurogenesis
The authors previously reported that conditional deletion of Dicer prevents the change in competence of progenitors to generate later-born cell types, suggesting that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) are required for this developmental transition. In this report, they showed that three miRNAs, let-7, miR-125, and miR-9, are key regulators of the early to late developmental transition in retinal progenitors. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Neuroglial Differentiation of Adult Enteric Neuronal Progenitor Cells as a Function of Extracellular Matrix Composition
Adult mammalian enteric neuronal progenitor cells isolated from full thickness rabbit intestines were induced to differentiate when cultured on various combinations of neural extracellular matrix substrates. [Biomaterials] Abstract

MHCII Is Required for α-Synuclein-Induced Activation of Microglia, CD4 T Cell Proliferation, and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration
Scientists used both an in vivo mouse model induced by viral overexpression of α-synuclein (α-syn) as well as in vitro systems to study the role of the MHCII complex in α-syn-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In vitro, treatment of microglia with aggregated α-syn leads to activation of antigen processing and presentation of antigen sufficient to drive CD4 T-cell proliferation and to trigger cytokine release. [J Neurosci]
Abstract | Press Release

Analysis of Epigenetic Factors in Mouse Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Hyperglycemia
Neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated from normal pregnancy and streptozotocin induced-diabetic pregnancy and cultured in physiological glucose. In NSCs, hyperglycemia increased the expression of doublecortin and platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolase proteins concomitant with decreased expression of four microRNAs predicted to target these genes. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Neurotransmitter-Mediated Control of Neurogenesis in the Adult Vertebrate Brain
The authors discuss neurotransmitter signaling as it functions at the intersection of stem cell research and regenerative medicine, exploring how it may regulate the formation of new functional neurons and outlining interactions with other signaling pathways. [Development] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.


Phase I Trial Uses Enhanced T Cells to Treat Neuroblastoma
A phase I clinical trial at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Cancer Center using an immunotherapy approach to treating neuroblastoma has received support from the nonprofit organization Solving Kids’ Cancer. [Baylor College of Medicine] Press Release

SanBio Announces FDA Clearance for the Initiation of a Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial Testing Their Cell Therapy Product, SB623, in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
SanBio Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved their Investigational New Drug application for the use of SB623, a novel allogeneic stem cell therapy product, in patients suffering from traumatic brain injuries. This approval allows the company to proceed with a Phase I/IIa clinical trial testing the safety and feasibility of the therapy. The clinical trial is expected to be carried out at several major hospitals in the United States. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

Proteostasis Therapeutics Receives Funding from The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Disease Research
Proteostasis Therapeutics, Inc. announced it has received a significant grant from The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research to fund preclinical research for disease-modifying therapies that treat Parkinson’s disease by enhancing the clearance of α-synuclein. [Proteostasis Therapeutics, Inc.]
Press Release

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NEW The Neurobiology of Synapses and their Dysfunction
October 13-17, 2013
Stresa, Italy

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.


NEW Postdoctoral Research Assistant – Dynamics of Cell Polarity (University of Dundee, College of Life Sciences)

NEW Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Developmental Neurobiology (North Carolina College of Veterinary Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuronal Differentiation and Migration (Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique)

Researcher – Neurobiology/Evolutionary Neural Development (Georg-August University Göttingen)

Postdoctoral Fellow (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Assistant or Associate Professor of Neuroscience (University of Virginia)

Research Fellow – Neural Stem Cells/Neurogenesis (Ikerbasque, the Basque Foundation for Science)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

PhD Opportunity – Role of Fibroblast Growth Factors in the Generation of Neuronal Diversity in the Spinal Cord (University of East Anglia)

Doctoral Studentship – Neural Cell Physiology (CNR-ISMN)

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