Volume 7.20 | May 22

Neural Cell News 7.20 May 22, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Phosphorylation of EZH2 Activates STAT3 Signaling via STAT3 Methylation and Promotes Tumorigenicity of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells
Scientists showed that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) binds to and methylates STAT3, leading to enhanced STAT3 activity by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. The EZH2-STAT3 interaction preferentially occurs in glioblastoma stem-like cells relative to non-stem bulk tumor cells, and it requires a specific phosphorylation of EZH2. [Cancer Cell] Abstract

Happy Neurons lead to Happy Neuroscientists: NeuroCult SM Primary Neuronal Culture Kits
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Interhemispheric Asymmetry of Olfactory Input-Dependent Neuronal Specification in the Adult Brain
Scientists performed gene-trap screens in adult zebrafish to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the two hemispheres and found that adult-born neurons expressing the neural zinc-finger protein Myt1 exist predominantly in the left ventricular-subventricular zone. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

A TSPO Ligand Is Protective in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Investigators examined the effects of etifoxine, a clinically available anxiolytic drug, in the development and progression of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model for multiple sclerosis. Modulation of translocator protein (TSPO) activity by etifoxine led to less peripheral immune cell infiltration of the spinal cord, and increased oligodendroglial regeneration after inflammatory demyelination in EAE. [EMBO Mol Med]
Abstract | Full Article

ALDH2 Protects against Stroke by Clearing 4-HNE
Using an unbiased proteomic search, researchers identified aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) deficiency in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with spontaneously hypertensive rats. They concluded the causative role of ALDH2 deficiency in neuronal injury as overexpression or activation of ALDH2 conferred neuroprotection by clearing 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) in in vitro studies. [Cell Res]
Full Article

Downregulation of miR-452 Promotes Stem-Like Traits and Tumorigenicity of Gliomas
Researchers evaluated the effect of miR-452 on the stem-like properties and tumorigenesis of glioma cells. miR-452 was markedly downregulated in glioma cells and clinical glioma tissues. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

Dll1 Maintains Quiescence of Adult Neural Stem Cells and Segregates Asymmetrically during Mitosis
Researchers showed that the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is required to maintain quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse subventricular zone. Dll1 protein is induced in activated NSCs and segregates to one daughter cell during mitosis. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Dynamic Interactions between Intermediate Neurogenic Progenitors and Radial Glia in Embryonic Mouse Neocortex: Potential Role in Delta-Like 1-Notch Signaling
To investigate how radial glia and intermediate neurogenic progenitors might interact to convey Notch signals, the authors used high-resolution live-cell multiphoton microscopy to directly observe cellular interactions and dynamics, in conjunction with Notch-pathway specific reporters in the neocortical neural stem cell niche in organotypic brain slices from embryonic mice. [J Neurosci]
Abstract | Full Article

The Pleiotrophin-ALK Axis Is Required for Tumorigenicity of Glioblastoma Stem Cells
Investigators showed that anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and its ligand pleiotrophin are required for the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Furthermore, they demonstrated that pleiotrophin is transactivated directly by SOX2, a transcription factor essential for the maintenance of both neural stem cells and GSCs. [Oncogene] Abstract

Neuropeptide Y Receptors Activation Protects Rat Retinal Neural Cells against Necrotic and Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Glutamate
Scientists investigated the potential protective role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) against glutamate-induced toxicity in rat retinal cells, unraveling the NPY receptors and intracellular mechanisms involved. Pre-treatment of cells with NPY inhibited both necrotic cell death and apoptotic cell death triggered by glutamate, with the neurons being the cells most strongly affected. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

N-Arachidonoyl-L-Serine (AraS) Possesses Proneurogenic Properties In Vitro and In Vivo after Traumatic Brain Injury
Scientists tested the effects of exogenous AraS on neurogenesis after traumatic brain injury. The effects of AraS on neural progenitor cells (NPC) proliferation, survival, and differentiation were examined in vitro. AraS significantly reduced the differentiation of NPC in vitro to astrocytes or neurons and led to a 2.5-fold increase in expression of the NPC marker nestin. [J Cerebr Blood F Met] Abstract

Lineage-Specific Purification of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells from Differentiated Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
The authors purified neural stem/progenitor cells, a good candidate source for regenerative therapy, from differentiated mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells

REVIEWS

Sirtuin Deacetylases in Neurodegenerative Diseases of Aging
The authors describe sirtuin protein targets in several aggregate-forming neurodegenerative diseases and discuss the therapeutic potential of compounds that modulate sirtuin activity in these disorders. [Cell Res] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.

SCIENCE NEWS

Neuralstem ALS Trial Principal Investigator, Dr. Eva Feldman, Presented Phase I Data at the Neuro Diabetes Medical Symposium in Romania
Neuralstem, Inc. reported that Eva Feldman, MD, PhD, principal investigator, presented updated Phase I data from its spinal cord-derived human neural stem cell (NSI-566) trial in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [Press release from Neuralstem, Inc. discussing research presented at the Neuro Diabetes Special Medical Symposium, Bucharest] Press Release

Poliovirus Vaccine Trial Shows Early Promise for Recurrent Glioblastoma
An attack on glioblastoma brain tumor cells that uses a modified poliovirus is showing encouraging results in an early study to establish the proper dose level, researchers report. [Press release from Duke University Health System discussing research presented at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Chicago] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS

Biogen Idec Submits Application to FDA for Approval of Plegridy™ (Peginterferon Beta-1a) in Multiple Sclerosis
Biogen Idec announced it has submitted a Biologics License Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of PLEGRIDY™, the company’s pegylated subcutaneous injectable candidate for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. [Biogen Idec] Press Release

Maryland Stem Cell Research Commission Funds 31 New Research Proposals in FY 2013
The Maryland Stem Cell Research Commission has completed its review of the 171 applications received in response to its FY 2013 Requests for Applications. The board of directors of the Maryland Technology Development Corporation approved the Commission’s recommendation to fund 31 new proposals with the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund’s $10.4 million FY2013 budget. [Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund] Press Release

NIH Saves Lives: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Calls on Congress to Restore Full NIH Funding
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center called on Congress to support restoring full funding to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which supports pioneering research that saves lives. Funding was recently cut due to sequestration. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center]  Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW 3rd International Neural Regeneration Symposium / 5th International Spinal Cord Injury Treatments and Trials Symposium
October 10-15, 2013
Shenyang, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cells and Neural Disease Modeling (Karolinska Institute)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Microenvironment & Pancreatic Cancer (INSERMU1068)

Researcher – Neurobiology/Evolutionary Neural Development (Georg-August University Göttingen)


Postdoctoral Fellow (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)


Assistant or Associate Professor of Neuroscience (University of Virginia)

Research Fellow – Neural Stem Cells/Neurogenesis (Ikerbasque, the Basque Foundation for Science)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

PhD Opportunity – Role of Fibroblast Growth Factors in the Generation of Neuronal Diversity in the Spinal Cord (University of East Anglia)

Doctoral Studentship – Neural Cell Physiology (CNR-ISMN)


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