Volume 7.05 | Feb 6

Neural Cell News 7.05 February 6, 2013
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Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Exerts Direct Effects on Neuronal Progenitor Cells: Implications for Neuroprotection
Investigators found that corticotrophin-releasing hormone could reverse the damaging effects of glucocorticoid on neural stem/progenitor cells, while its genetic deficiency results in compromised proliferation and enhanced apoptosis during neurogenesis. [Mol Psychiatr] Full Article

Neurosphere or Adherent Monolayer Culture? NeuroCult Does Both.
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Transplanted Progenitors Generate Functional Enteric Neurons in the Postnatal Colon
Investigators transplanted neurospheres generated from fetal and postnatal intestinal neural crest-derived cells into the colon of postnatal mice. Findings showed that transplanted enteric neural progenitor cells can generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal bowel and advance the notion that cell therapy is a promising strategy for enteric neuropathies. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

APC Binds Intermediate Filaments and Is Required for Their Reorganization during Cell Migration
Scientists found that the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was required for microtubule interaction with intermediate filaments (IFs) and for microtubule-dependent rearrangements of IFs during astrocyte migration. They also showed that loss or truncation of APC correlated with the disorganization of the IF network in glioma and carcinoma cells. [J Cell Biol] Abstract

S-Nitrosylated SHP-2 Contributes to NMDA Receptor-Mediated Excitotoxicity in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Scientists report that in neurons and brain tissue nitric oxide can S-nitrosylate tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) at its active site cysteine, forming S-nitrosylated SHP-2 (SNO-SHP-2). They found that NMDA exposure in vitro and transient focal cerebral ischemia in vivo resulted in increased levels of SNO-SHP-2. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

RNA-Binding Protein Sam68 Controls Synapse Number and Local β-Actin mRNA Metabolism in Dendrites
Researchers showed that Src associated in mitosis (Sam68) knockdown or disruption of the binding between Sam68 and its actb mRNA cargo in primary hippocampal cultures decreases the amount of actb mRNA in the synaptodendritic compartment and results in fewer dendritic spines. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Doublecortin-Like Kinase Enhances Dendritic Remodeling and Negatively Regulates Synapse Maturation
Scientists report two distinct functions of doublecortin-like kinases, chimeric proteins containing both a microtubule-binding domain and a kinase domain in postmitotic neurons. First, doublecortin-like kinases localize to the distal dendrites and promote their growth by enhancing microtubule bundling. Second, doublecortin-like kinases suppress maturation of synapses through multiple pathways, including reduction of PSD-95 by the kinase domain and suppression of spine structural maturation by the microtubule-binding domain. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Peptide Hormone Ghrelin Enhances Neuronal Excitability by Inhibition of Kv7/KCNQ Channels
Investigators described a novel mechanism by which ghrelin enhances firing of nigral dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting voltage-gated potassium Kv7/KCNQ/M-channels through its receptor GHS-R1a and activation of the PLC-PKC pathway. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Neural Development Is Dependent on the Function of Specificity Protein 2 in Cell Cycle Progression
Researchers demonstrated that neural stem cells and intermediate neural progenitor cells employ a zinc-finger transcription factor specificity protein 2 as a cell cycle regulator in two temporally and spatially distinct progenitor domains. [Development]
Abstract | Press Release

Motor Neurons and Glia Exhibit Specific, Individualized Responses to TDP-43 Expression in a Drosophila Model of ALS
Researchers report the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and four different Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) linked TDP-43 mutations in neurons versus glia. They showed that TDP-43 driven neurodegeneration phenotypes are dose and age dependent. [Dis Model Mech] Abstract | Full Article

MicroRNA-145 Is Downregulated in Glial Tumors and Regulates Glioma Cell Migration by Targeting Connective Tissue Growth Factor
Investigators examined the expression of microRNA-145 (miR-145) in glial tumors and its function in glioma cells. Using TCGA analysis and real-time PCR they found that the expression of miR-145/143 cluster was downregulated in astrocytic tumors compared to normal brain specimens and in glioma cells and glioma stem cells compared to normal astrocytes and neural stem cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Neural and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells: Transferrin Effects on Cell Proliferation
Scientists indicated that apoTransferrin is able to increase cell proliferation of subventricular zone-derived cells in vitro, and that these effects were mediated at least in part by the TfReceptor 1. [ASN Neuro]

Happy Neurons lead to Happy Neuroscientists: NeuroCult SM Primary Neuronal Culture Kits

Signals that Regulate the Oncogenic Fate of Neural Stem Cells and Progenitors
The authors highlight the possible drivers of stemness in medulloblastoma and glioma, the most frequent types of primary malignant brain cancer in children and adults, respectively. Signals that drive expansion of developmentally defined neural precursor cells are also active in corresponding brain tumors. [Exp Neurol] Abstract
Type II Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Connection
A research team in Israel has devised a novel approach to identifying the molecular basis for designing a drug that might one day decrease the risk diabetes patients face of developing Alzheimer’s disease. [Press release from EurekAlert! discussing research presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society (BPS), Philadelphia] Press Release | Abstract
Japanese Research Organizations Contribute to Human Brain Project
Two Japanese research organizations, the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University and RIKEN, will join forces with a large European consortium on the Human Brain Project, which the European Commission has officially announced as one of two Future and Emerging Technology Flagship projects. [RIKEN Brain Science Institute] Press Release

Grand Opening of America’s First Institute for Neuro Immune Medicine
Nova Southeastern University’s College of Osteopathic Medicine will hold a grand opening for America’s first Institute for Neuro Immune Medicine on February 12. The Institute will be the first in the nation to study neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, Gulf War Illness, Parkinson’s Disease and multiple sclerosis using the newest genomic techniques. [Nova Southeastern University] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

NEW 15th International Neuroscience Winter Conference
Solden, Austria
April 9-13, 2013

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Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

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Postdoctoral Position – Systems Biology, Neurodegenerative Diseases (The Microsoft Research-University of Trento [COSBI])

Postdoctoral Position – Neural Stem Cells and Neurodevelopment (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience (Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Molecular Pharmacology (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine)

Staff Scientist – Clinical Research (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital)

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