Volume 7.03 | Jan 23

Neural Cell News 7.03 January 23, 2013
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Reprogramming Adult Schwann Cells to Stem Cell-Like Cells by Leprosy Bacilli Promotes Dissemination of Infection
Differentiated cells possess a remarkable genomic plasticity that can be manipulated to reverse or change developmental commitments. Researchers showed that the leprosy bacterium hijacks this property to reprogram adult Schwann cells, its preferred host niche, to a stage of progenitor/stem-like cells of mesenchymal trait by downregulating Schwann cell lineage/differentiation-associated genes and upregulating genes mostly of mesoderm development. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Developmentally Regulated Subnuclear Genome Reorganization Restricts Neural Progenitor Competence in Drosophila
Scientists used in vivo immuno-DNA FISH and found that the hunchback gene moves to the neuroblast nuclear periphery, a repressive subnuclear compartment, precisely when competence to specify early-born fate is lost and several hours and cell divisions after termination of its transcription. [Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

GDE2 Promotes Neurogenesis by Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchor Cleavage of RECK
Investigators identified a previously unrecognized mechanism to initiate neurogenesis that involves glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 2 (GDE2)-mediated surface cleavage of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored targets to inhibit Delta-like 1-Notch signaling. [Science] Abstract

Microglia Emerge from Erythromyeloid Precursors via Pu.1- and Irf8-Dependent Pathways
Scientists found that mouse microglia were derived from primitive c-kit+ erythromyeloid precursors that were detected in the yolk sac as early as 8 d post conception. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Wnt5a Cooperates with Canonical Wnts to Generate Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons In Vivo and in Stem Cells
Researchers report that loss of Wnt1 results in loss of Lmx1a and Ngn2 expression, as well as agenesis of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain floor plate. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Multimodal Actions of Neural Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of ALS: A Meta-Analysis
Investigators tested the hypothesis that transplanted, undifferentiated multipotent migratory neural stem cells may help to ameliorate an array of pathological mechanisms in the SOD1G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

Differentiation of CD133+ Stem Cells From Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients into Preneuron Cells
Researchers concluded that CD133+ stem cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, like the stem cells of healthy subjects, are capable of differentiating into preneuron cells. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

APLP2 Regulates Neuronal Stem Cell Differentiation During Cortical Development
Data revealed that APLP2 is specifically required for proper cell cycle exit of neuronal progenitors, and thus has a distinct role in priming cortical progenitors for neuronal differentiation. [J Cell Sci] Abstract

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 Signaling Acts as a Molecular Switch between Syngenic Differentiation and Neural Transdifferentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Scientists found that treatment of human adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, in particular CDK4 inhibitor, selectively led to transdifferentiation into neural cells with a high frequency. [Cell Cycle] Abstract

A Comparative Study of Glial and Non-Neural Cell Properties for Transplant-Mediated Repair of the Injured Spinal Cord
Researchers carried out a direct comparison of the regenerative and integrative properties of several cell preparations following transplantation into the lesioned rat spinal cord. Tract-tracing experiments demonstrated that none of the cell types promoted regeneration beyond the lesion. [Glia] Abstract

The Different Role of Notch1 and Notch2 in Astrocytic Gliomas
For clarification of the role of Notch2 in pathogenesis of gliomas, enforced overexpression of Notch2 was carried out with transfection of Notch2 expression plasmid in glioma cells and the cell growth, invasion and apoptosis were examined in vitro and in vivo, and siRNA targeting Notch1 was used as a positive control in vivo. [PLoS One] Full Article

Culture Human Glioma-Derived Tumorspheres with NeuroCult™ - View Publications

Activity-Dependent Neuronal Signaling and Autism Spectrum Disorder
The authors review evidence indicating that many of the genes that are mutated in autism spectrum disorder are crucial components of the activity-dependent signaling networks that regulate synapse development and plasticity. [Nature] Abstract

UB to Share $12.1 Million State Grant for Stem Cell Study in MS
University at Buffalo (UB) and two other upstate medical centers will lead a $12.1 million stem cell study aimed at halting the progression of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). [University at Buffalo] Press Release

NCCN Guidelines® Recommend NovoTTF™ Therapy as a Standard Treatment Option for CNS Cancers
Novocure Limited announced that Novocure’s NovoTTF™ Therapy has been added to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Central Nervous System Cancers. The new NCCN Guidelines® indicate that physicians consider using NovoTTF Therapy as a new option, in addition to surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, for patients with glioblastoma brain tumors that recur or progress after initial treatment. [Novocure Limited] Press Release

NextBio Teams with Emory University and the Aflac Cancer Center to Improve Outcomes for Children with Medulloblastoma: NextBio Clinical to be Used for Translational Research Focused on Medulloblastoma
NextBio announced a translational research partnership with Emory University, Winship Cancer Institute and the Aflac Cancer Center aimed at using NextBio Clinical to interpret molecular and genomic data from children with medulloblastoma. [NextBio] Press Release


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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

NEW Treatment-Resistant Depression: Glutamate, Stress-Hormones and Their Role in the Regeneration of Neurons
March 25, 2013
New York City, United States

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Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Postdoctoral Position(s) – Cell Biology, Biophysics and Neurobiology (University of Missouri, Kansas City)

Postdoctoral Position – Systems Biology, Neurodegenerative Diseases (The Microsoft Research-University of Trento [COSBI])

Postdoctoral Position – Neural Stem Cells and Neurodevelopment (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience (Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology of Neural Stem Cells (University Muenster, Institute of Cell Biology)

Postdoctoral Position – Molecular Pharmacology (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)

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