Volume 6.49 | Dec 12

Neural Cell News 6.49 December 12, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Generation of Integration-Free Neural Progenitor Cells from Cells in Human Urine
Researchers describe the generation of integration-free and expandable human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). They combined an episomal system to deliver reprogramming factors with a chemically defined culture medium to reprogram epithelial-like cells from human urine into NPCs. [Nature Methods]
Abstract | Press Release

Happy Neurons lead to Happy Neuroscientists: NeuroCult SM Primary Neuronal Culture Kits
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Neurogliaform Cells Dynamically Regulate Somatosensory Integration via Synapse-Specific Modulation
Despite the prevailing idea that neurogliaform cells produce a spatially unrestricted widespread inhibition, scientists demonstrated that neurogliaform cell activity attenuates thalamic-evoked feed-forward inhibition in layer IV barrel cortex but has no effect on feed-forward excitation. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

A Role for Schwann Cell-Derived Neuregulin-1 in Remyelination
Investigators found that axonal neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III and, unexpectedly, also NRG1 type I restored normal myelination when overexpressed in transgenic mice. This led to the observation that Wallerian degeneration induced de novo NRG1 type I expression in Schwann cells themselves. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Distinct Roles of Nogo-A and Nogo Receptor 1 in the Homeostatic Regulation of Adult Neural Stem Cell Function and Neuroblast Migration
Investigators examined the role of Nogo-A and Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) in the regulation of neurogenesis. Pharmacological experiments showed that Nogo-66/NgR1 interaction reduces the proliferation of NSCs. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Misregulation of Human Sortilin Splicing Leads to the Generation of a Nonfunctional Progranulin Receptor
Sortilin 1 regulates the levels of brain progranulin, a neurotrophic growth factor that, when deficient, is linked to cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TAR DNA-binding protein-43-positive inclusions. Researchers identified a specific splicing enhancer element that regulates the inclusion of a sortilin exon cassette (termed Ex17b) not normally present in the mature sortilin mRNA. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

MicroRNA-145 Inhibits the Growth, Invasion, Metastasis and Angiogenesis of Neuroblastoma Cells through Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 Alpha
Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF-2α) immunostaining was identified in 26/42 neuroblastoma (NB) tissues, which was correlated with clinicopathological features. In subtotal 20 NB cases, microRNA-145 was downregulated and inversely correlated with HIF-2α expression. [Oncogene] Abstract

Prevention of β-Amyloid Induced Toxicity in Human iPS Cell-Derived Neurons by Inhibition of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Associated Cell Cycle Events
Researchers used neurons with forebrain marker expression from two unrelated human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines. As both populations of neurons were vulnerable to β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42) aggregates, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease pathology, the authors used them to investigate cellular mediators of Aβ1-42 toxicity. [Stem Cell Res]
Abstract | Press Release

Identification of Novel MicroRNAs in Post-Transcriptional Control of Nrf2 Expression and Redox Homeostasis in Neuronal, SH-SY5Y Cells
Based on in-silico analysis followed by immunoblotting and real time analysis, investigators identified and validated for the first time that human nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/NFE2L2) could be targeted by microRNA (miR)153/miR27a/miR142-5p/miR144 in neuronal, SH-SY5Y cells. [PLoS One]
Full Article

Histone Demethylase Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) as a Tumor Suppressor by Regulating p53 Protein Nuclear Stabilization
Scientists report that JMJD3 is induced during differentiation of glioblastoma stem cells, where it promotes a differentiation-like phenotype via chromatin dependent and chromatin independent (nuclear p53 protein stabilization) mechanisms. [PLoS One] Full Article

Environmental Toxins Trigger Parkinson’s Disease-Like Progression via Increased Alpha-Synuclein Release from Enteric Neurons in Mice
Researchers showed that an environmental toxin promotes the release of alpha-synuclein by enteric neurons and that released enteric alpha-synuclein is up-taken by presynaptic sympathetic neurites and retrogradely transported to the soma, where it accumulates. [Sci Rep]
Full Article

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REVIEWS

Apolipoprotein E Sets the Stage: Response to Injury Triggers Neuropathology
Researchers review data supporting the hypothesis that apolipoprotein (apo) E4 (> apoE3 > apoE2) has direct neurotoxic effects and highlight studies showing that blocking domain interaction reverses these detrimental effects. [Neuron] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

INDUSTRY NEWS

Grand Opening of the Max Planck Florida Institute in the United States
Jeff Atwater, Cornelia Quennet-Thielen, Prof. Peter Gruss, and Dr. David Fitzpatrick opened the brand new Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience at an official ceremony in Jupiter, Florida. It is the first institute of the Max Planck Society, which is based in Germany, to be located in the United States. [Max Planck Florida Institute] Press Release

ENDECE Neural to Present Findings at 2013 Biotech Showcase on NDC-1308 which Induces Remyelination of Demyelinated Axons
ENDECE Neural, LLC announced that the company will be presenting at the 2013 Biotech Showcase in San Francisco, California, January 8th. The ENDECE Neural presentation will discuss the company’s novel therapeutic for directly inducing remyelination of demyelinated axons to treat neurological diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis. [ENDECE Neural, LLC] Press Release

Precision StemCell’s Neural Reprogrammed Stem Cell Therapy Yields Better-than-Expected Results for ALS Patients
In Precision StemCell’s neural reprogrammed stem cell therapy, fat-derived stem cells are injected into the spine of the patient. Dr. Williams uses a drug called selegeline, which has been shown to be a pre-inducer of adipose-derived stem cells into neural-like cells. Dr. Williams contends that the therapy is probably one of the largest advances seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) therapy. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW Gordon Research Seminar – Dendrites: Molecules, Structure & Function
May 19-24, 2013
Les Diablerets, Switzerland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist – Endothelial Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist or Engineer – hPSC Bioengineer (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Quality Control Analyst (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Product Quality Scientist (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Stem Cells (Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Postdoctoral Position(s) – Cell Biology, Biophysics and Neurobiology (University of Missouri, Kansas City)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Stem Cell Biology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Position – Systems Biology, Neurodegenerative Diseases (The Microsoft Research-University of Trento (COSBI))

Research Fellow – Pediatric Brain Tumor Research (The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto)

Postdoctoral Position – Transcriptional Regulation in Neural Stem Cells (Washington University School of Medicine)

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