Volume 6.47 | Nov 28

Neural Cell News 6.47 November 28, 2012
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Abnormal Development of NG2+PDGFR-α+ Neural Progenitor Cells Leads to Neonatal Hydrocephalus in a Ciliopathy Mouse Model
Researchers used a hydrocephalic mouse model of the human ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl Syndrome and identified a role for neural progenitors in the pathogenesis of neonatal hydrocephalus. They found that hydrocephalus in this mouse model is caused by aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFR-α) signaling, resulting in increased apoptosis and impaired proliferation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (also known as neuron-glial antigen 2 [NG2])+PDGFR-α+ neural progenitors. [Nat Med]
Abstract | Press Release

SM2 Substrate Independent Neuronal Culture
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

14-3-3 Proteins Regulate a Cell-Intrinsic Switch from Sonic Hedgehog-Mediated Commissural Axon Attraction to Repulsion after Midline Crossing
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) attracts spinal cord commissural axons ventrally toward the floorplate. The authors showed that after crossing the floorplate, commissural axons switch their response to Shh from attraction to repulsion, so that they are repelled anteriorly by a posterior-high/anterior-low Shh gradient along the longitudinal axis. [Neuron] Abstract

Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons Comprise Two Distinct Cell Types that Are Countermodulated by Metabotropic Receptors
Using unbiased cluster analysis, investigators showed that there are two morphologically and electrophysiologically distinct principal cell types that carry hippocampal output. They further showed that these two cell types are inversely modulated by the synergistic action of glutamate and acetylcholine acting on metabotropic receptors that are central to hippocampal function. [Neuron] Abstract

Deletion of GSK3β in D2 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Reveals Distinct Roles for β-Arrestin Signaling in Antipsychotic and Lithium Action
To elucidate the site of action of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β) in regulating dopamine (DA)- or lithium-sensitive behaviors, scientists generated conditional knockouts of GSK3β, where GSK3β was deleted in either DA D1- or D2-receptor-expressing neurons. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Reduction of Polyglutamine Toxicity by TDP-43, FUS and Progranulin in Huntington’s Disease Models
To investigate if TAR DNA-Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) and Fused-in-Sarcoma (FUS) contribute to neurodegenerative phenotypes, scientists turned to a genetically accessible C. elegans model of polyglutamine toxicity. In C. elegans they observed that genetic loss of function mutations for nematode orthologues of TDP-43 or FUS reduced behavioral defects and neurodegeneration caused by huntingtin exon-1 with expanded polyglutamines. [Hum Mol Genet] Abstract | Press Release

Fibrinogen-Induced Perivascular Microglial Clustering Is Required for the Development of Axonal Damage in Neuroinflammation
Investigators showed that the blood protein fibrinogen induces rapid microglial responses toward the vasculature and is required for axonal damage in neuroinflammation. [Nat Commun]
Full Article | Press Release

Fluoxetine (Prozac) and Serotonin Act on Excitatory Synaptic Transmission to Suppress Single Layer 2/3 Pyramidal Neuron-Triggered Cell Assemblies in the Human Prefrontal Cortex
Scientists showed that neuronal assemblies triggered by single action potentials of individual neurons in the human cortex are suppressed by therapeutic doses of fluoxetine. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Dnmt1-Dependent DNA Methylation Is Essential for Photoreceptor Terminal Differentiation and Retinal Neuron Survival
To understand the role of DNA methylation during retinal network formation, researchers generated a mouse retinal-specific Dnmt1 deletion mutation from the onset of neurogenesis. In the hypomethylated Dnmt1-mutant retina, neural progenitor cells continue to proliferate, however, the cell cycle progression is altered, as revealed by an increased proportion of G1 phase cells. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Efficient Derivation of Multipotent Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells from Non-Human Primate Embryonic Stem Cells
The authors established a culture method to efficiently derive neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) as neurospheres from common marmoset embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Marmoset ESC-derived neurospheres could be passaged repeatedly and showed sequential generation of neurons and astrocytes, similar to that of mouse ESC-derived NS/PCs, and gave rise to functional neurons as indicated by calcium imaging. [PLoS One] Full Article

[New Webinar] Discover How to Reduce Variability in Primary Neuron Cultures with NeuroCult SM

FoxM1 and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Glioma Stem Cells
Researchers discuss the evidence that FoxM1 affects the expression and function of a variety of genes that are critical to the survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and self-renewal of cancer stem cells. They highlight the pivotal roles of the Wnt/β-catenin and FoxM1 signaling pathways in neural stem and progenitor cells and glioma stem cells. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Accera Announces Initiation of Clinical Trial for AC-1204
Accera, Inc. announced the initiation of a clinical efficacy trial examining the effects of AC-1204 in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. AC-1204 is a formulation of caprylic triglyceride designed to improve cognitive function in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. [PR Newswire Association LLC]
Press Release

Clinician-Scientists at The Neuro Receive Funding for Parkinson’s and HIV Research

Two clinician-scientists at The Neuro have been awarded grants to further research on Parkinson’s Disease and HIV/AIDS. [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital] Press Release

Evotec Enters Biology Collaboration with Probiodrug
Evotec AG announced that it has entered into a collaboration with Probiodrug AG. Under the terms of the agreement, Evotec will setup and validate assays to support the pre-clinical and clinical development of glutaminyl cyclase inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. [Evotec AG] Press Release


National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)


NEW STEM 2013, 9th Annual Conference – Society for Regenerative Medicine & Tissue Engineering
Bangalore, India
January 31-February 1, 2013

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.


Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist – Endothelial Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist or Engineer – hPSC Bioengineer (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Quality Control Analyst (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Product Quality Scientist (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Stem Cells (Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Postdoctoral Position(s) – Cell Biology, Biophysics and Neurobiology (University of Missouri, Kansas City)

Postdoctoral Position – Sensory Neuron Morphogenesis (MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Stem Cell Biology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

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