Volume 6.43 | Oct 31

Neural Cell News 6.43 October 31, 2012
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Inhibition of RNA Lariat Debranching Enzyme Suppresses TDP-43 Toxicity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Disease Models
Researchers showed that, in the absence of Dbr1 enzymatic activity, intronic lariats accumulate in the cytoplasm and likely act as decoys to sequester TDP-43, preventing it from interfering with essential cellular RNAs and RNA-binding proteins. Knockdown of Dbr1 in a human neuronal cell line or in primary rat neurons is also sufficient to rescue TDP-43 toxicity. [Nat Gen] Abstract | Press Release

Culture primary neurons independent of substrate with NeuroCult™ SM2
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Impaired Intrinsic Immunity to HSV-1 in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived TLR3-Deficient CNS Cells
Scientists concluded that impaired toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and UNC-93B-dependent interferon-α/β intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 in the CNS, in neurons and oligodendrocytes in particular, may underlie the pathogenesis of HSV-1 encephalitis in children with TLR3-pathway deficiencies. [Nature] Abstract

Attenuated Adenosine-to-Inosine Editing of microRNA-376a* Promotes Invasiveness of Glioblastoma Cells
Researchers hypothesized that disruption of adenosine-to-inosine editing alters expression of genes regulating glioma tumor phenotypes. By sequencing the microRNA-376 (miR-376) cluster, they showed that the overall microRNA editing frequencies were reduced in human gliomas. Specifically in high-grade gliomas, miR-376a* accumulated entirely in an unedited form. [J Clin Invest] Abstract

Local Axonal Function of STAT3 Rescues Axon Degeneration in the pmn Model of Motoneuron Disease
Researchers showed that activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), an intracellular mediator of the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor and other neurotrophic cytokines, acts locally in axons of motoneurons to modify the tubulin cytoskeleton. [J Cell Biol] Abstract | Press Release

A Tumorigenic MLL-Homeobox Network in Human Glioblastoma Stem Cells
Investigators provided the first mechanistic insights into the role of the Trithorax protein MLL in maintaining cancer stem cell characteristics in human glioblastoma. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Is a Key Regulator of the Transit-Amplifying Progenitor Pool in the Adult and Aging Forebrain
Scientists showed that mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is pivotal in determining proliferation versus quiescence in the adult forebrain neural stem cell niche. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Lack of Huntingtin Promotes Neural Stem Cells Differentiation into Glial Cells while Neurons Expressing Huntingtin with Expanded Polyglutamine Tracts Undergo Cell Death
Investigators aimed to generate a series of mouse neural stem cell lines that carried varying numbers of CAG repeats in the mouse Huntingtin (Htt) gene or that had Hdh null alleles. [Neurobiol Dis] Abstract

Promotion of Both Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation in Pluripotent P19 Cells with Stable Overexpression of the Glutamine Transporter slc38a1
To evaluate the possible role of glutamine transporter (GlnT = slc38a1) in neurogenesis, researchers attempted to establish stable transfectants of GlnT in mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells endowed to proliferate for self-renewal and differentiate into progeny cells such as neurons and astroglia, in addition to in vitro pharmacological profiling of the green tea ingredient theanine, which is shown to be a potent inhibitor of glutamine transport mediated by GlnT in cultured neurons and astroglia. [PLoS One] Full Article

Effects of Homocysteine on ERK Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Fetal Neural Stem Cells In Vitro
Researchers aimed to determine if the excitatory amino acid homocysteine alters ERK signaling and cell proliferation in fetal neural stem cells in vitro. [Cell Biochem Biophys] Abstract

Major Vault Protein Promotes Locomotor Recovery and Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish
Using an established zebrafish spinal cord injury (SCI) model, investigators found that major vault protein (MVP) mRNA and protein expression levels were increased in ependymal cells in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site at 6 and 11 days after SCI. [Eur J Neurosci] Abstract

The Upper Midwest Health Study: Gliomas and Occupational Exposure to Chlorinated Solvents
Scientists evaluated glioma risk from non-farm occupational exposure to any of the six chlorinated solvents among 798 cases and 1175 population-based controls, aged 18-80 years and non-metropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin. [Occup Environ Med] Abstract

Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay

REVIEWS
Glial Progenitor Cell–Based Treatment and Modeling of Neurological Disease
This review explores how fundamentally glial disorders may be amenable to treatment by glial progenitor cells, which give rise to astroglia and myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. [Science] Abstract | Press Release
INDUSTRY NEWS

Children’s Hospital Los Angeles Names Jonathan Finlay, MD, to an Endowed Chair as Head of New Neuro-Oncology Program
Jonathan Finlay, MD, director of the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles Neural Tumors Program within the Children’s Center for Cancer and Blood Diseases, has been named to an endowed chair as director of the hospital’s newly-established inter-departmental Neuro-Oncology Program. [Business Wire] Press Release

Amarantus BioSciences Announces MANF Demonstrates Superiority over GDNF in Neurorestoration
Behavioural Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Amarantus BioSciences, Inc. announced that the Company has received positive behavioural efficacy data for MANF in a neurorestoration 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson’s disease. The data show superiority of MANF over GDNF, a neurotrophic factor currently in a Phase II clinical trial as a disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson’s disease, by demonstrating that when MANF is delivered directly to the primary brain region associated with Parkinson’s called the substantia nigra, MANF significantly reduced behavioural deficits in the model, whereas GDNF did not. [Amarantus BioSciences] Press Release

The ALS Association Recognizes Caregivers in November
November is National Family Caregivers Month and The ALS Association wants to say thank you to the 65 million-plus individuals who fill the role of family caregivers to spouses, children, parents and other loved ones dealing with physical, developmental or emotional needs. People suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) require significant support and caregivers are essential in helping manage the day-to-day complexities of the disease. [PR Newswire] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW International Conference on “Alpha-Synuclein in Parkinson’s Disease and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases: From Mechanisms to Therapeutic Strategies”
March 1-3, 2013
Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Quality Control Operations Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientist – Endothelial Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Product Manager – Hematopoietic (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


Product Quality Scientist (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Tumor Stem Cells (Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Postdoctoral Position – Pathophysiology of Brain Tumors (UMR 6301 ISTCT)

Research Associate – Quality Assurance (University of California)

Postdoctoral Position(s) – Cell Biology, Biophysics and Neurobiology (University of Missouri, Kansas City)


Postdoctoral Position – Sensory Neuron Morphogenesis (MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology)

Postdoctoral Position – Intrinsic Plasticity and Homeostasis in the Neocortex (University of Leicester)

Postdoctoral Position – Axonal Transport of Mitochondria in ALS (University of Sheffield)


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