Volume 6.38 | Sep 26

Neural Cell News 6.38 September 26, 2012
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Excessive Activation of mTOR in Postnatally Generated Granule Cells Is Sufficient to Cause Epilepsy
Researchers isolated the effects of abnormal adult-generated granule cells (DGCs) using a transgenic mouse model to selectively delete PTEN from postnatally generated DGCs. PTEN deletion led to hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway, producing abnormal DGCs morphologically similar to those in epilepsy. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release

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Inhibition of ASK1-p38 Pathway Prevents Neural Cell Death following Optic Nerve Injury
The authors found that optic nerve injury (ONI)-induced p38 activation and retinal ganglion cell loss were suppressed in apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-deficient mice. These results suggest that ASK1 activation in both neural and glial cells is involved in neural cell death, and that pharmacological interruption of ASK1-p38 pathways could be beneficial in the treatment of ONI. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Corelease of Dopamine and GABA by a Retinal Dopaminergic Neuron
By combining recordings of dopamine (DA) and GABA release from isolated, genetically identified perikarya of retinal dopaminergic cells from the mouse retina, scientists observed that a proportion of the events of DA and GABA exocytosis were simultaneous, suggesting corelease. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Pinocembrin Protects against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Toxicity in Neurons through Inhibiting Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Oroducts (RAGE)-Independent Signaling Pathways and Regulating Mitochondrion-Mediated Apoptosis
It is known that amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Interaction between Abeta and RAGE has been implicated in neuronal degeneration associated with this disease. Researchers investigated the effects of pinocembrin on the cognitive function and neuronal protection against Abeta-induced toxicity and explored its potential mechanism. [BMC Med]
Abstract | Full Article

Time Limited Immunomodulatory Functions of Transplanted Neural Precursor Cells
Researchers studied time-associated changes in neural stem/precursor cell (NPC) immunomodulatory properties. They examined whether intracerebrally-transplanted NPCs are able to inhibit early versus delayed induction of autoimmune brain inflammation and whether allogeneic NPC grafts continuously inhibit host rejection responses. [Glia] Abstract

Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C/Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70)/Transcription Factor B-Cell Translocation Gene 2 Signaling in Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Differentiation to Cholinergic Neuron-Like Cells
Investigators found that functional suppression of Hsp70 blocked D609 increased B-cell translocation gene 2 (Btg2) expression and cholinergic neuronal differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). These results demonstrated that Hsp70 was the pivotal factor in phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-medicated neuronal differentiation of BMSCs, and Btg2 might be its downstream target. [Int J Biochem Cell Biol] Abstract

Skeletal Muscle Neural Progenitor Cells Exhibit Properties of NG2-Glia
Scientists showed that Nestin-GFP+ progenitor cells share morphological and molecular markers with NG2-glia and A2B5 expression. Although these cells exhibit NG2, they do not express other pericyte markers, such as α-SMA or connexin-43, and do not differentiate into the muscle lineage. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

Nestin-Expressing Cells in the Gut Give Rise to Enteric Neurons and Glial Cells
Investigators aimed to isolate and characterize mucosa-derived neuronal stem cells, determine their relationship to Nestin-expressing cells and to demonstrate their capacity to produce neuroglial networks in vitro and in vivo. [Neurogastroenterol Motil] Abstract

Exendin-4 Improved Rat Cortical Neuron Survival Under Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation through PKA Pathway
The authors indicated that Exendin-4 protected neurons against oxygen/glucose deprivation by modulating the unfolded protein response through PKA pathway and may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for stroke. [Neuroscience] Abstract

Cul4B Regulates Neural Progenitor Cell Growth
Scientists provide evidence that unneddylated cullin-4b (Cul4B) isoforms exist in the brain and are necessary for mitosis progression in neural progenitor cells. The data suggests that unneddylated Cul4B isoforms specifically inhibits beta-catenin degradation during mitosis. [BMC Neurosci] Abstract | Full Article

Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Adult Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Neuronal Regeneration
The authors investigated whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) derived neural progenitor cells (MDNPCs) can promote in vitro neural regeneration, a process comprising mainly the generation of neurons and neurotransmitters. They co-cultured BMSC, MDNPC or fetal neural stem/progenitor cells with PC12 cells and studied their roles on proliferation, neurite formation and dopamine release from PC12 cells. [Life Sci] Abstract

[New Webinar] Discover How to Reduce Variability in Primary Neuron Cultures with NeuroCult SM

Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Pathology and Pathogenesis
This review summarizes studies on the pathology of progressive multiple sclerosis and discusses new data on the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis. [Nat Rev Neurol] Abstract

Vanderbilt University and Bristol-Myers Squibb Sign Collaboration Agreement to Develop Novel Treatments for Parkinson’s Disease
Vanderbilt University and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company announced that they have signed a collaboration agreement for the discovery, development and commercialization of novel therapies acting on the mGluR4 glutamate receptor for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Company] Press Release

RBCC Explores NASA Technology in Stem Cell Search

Rainbow Biosciences, the biotech subsidiary of Rainbow Coral Corp. (RBCC), announced that it is exploring the possible use of micro-gravity technology developed by NASA to produce three-dimensional adult stem cells for medical research purposes. [Business Wire] Press Release


Chilean Scientists Oppose Funding-Agency Relocation
Chilean scientific organizations are alarmed by a suggestion from the country’s economy minister that he should oversee the National Science and Technology Research Commission, the main science funder. [Chilean Economy Minister, Chile] Press Release

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NEW 33rd Annual Meeting of the Australian Neuroscience Society
February 3-6, 2013
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Quality Control Operations Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Media Development (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Research Technologist – Research and Development (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Product Manager – Hematopoietic (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Adult Neural Stem Cell Research (Cleveland Clinic)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurodegeneration Molecular Cell Biology (Mount Sinai School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience and Neurology/Neuro-Cardiology (Focus Research)

Postdoctoral Position – Pathophysiology of Brain Tumors (UMR 6301 ISTCT)

Research Associate – Quality Assurance (University of California)

Faculty Member – Pediatric Neuroscience (The University of New Mexico)

Postdoctoral Position(s) – Cell Biology, Biophysics and Neurobiology (University of Missouri, Kansas City)

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