Volume 10.20 | May 25

Neural Cell News 10.20 May 25, 2016
Neural Cell News
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The Dynamic Localization of Cytoplasmic Dynein in Neurons Is Driven by Kinesin-1
Scientists demonstrated that the outward transport of dynein from soma to axon terminal is driven by direct interactions with the anterograde motor kinesin-1. In developing neurons, they found that dynein dynamically cycles between neurites, following kinesin-1 and accumulating in the nascent axon coincident with axon specification. [Neuron] Full Article | Video
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Active Dendrites Regulate the Impact of Gliotransmission on Rat Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons
Researchers used somatic and/or dendritic recordings from rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons and demonstrated that a majority of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow excitatory potentials originated at dendritic locations and are significantly attenuated through their propagation across the neuronal arbor. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Physiological Maturation and Drug Responses of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cortical Neuronal Networks in Long-Term Culture
Researchers investigated the development of spontaneous electrophysiological activity and pharmacological responses for over one year in culture using multi-electrode arrays. The complete maturation of spontaneous firing, evoked responses, and modulation of activity by glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor antagonists/agonists required 20–30 weeks. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Cell Type-Dependent Erk-Akt Pathway Crosstalk Regulates the Proliferation of Fetal Neural Progenitor Cells
In vitro Erk inhibition led to the prolonged rapid expansion of fetal neural progenitor cells while retaining their multipotency. In vivo inhibitor administration significantly inhibited the neuronal differentiation, and resulted in increased proliferative progenitor cells in the ventricular/subventricular zone of the embryonic cortex. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Monocrotophos Induces the Expression of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Cytochrome P450s (CYP2C8 and CYP3A4) and Neurotoxicity in Human Brain Cells
The authors investigated the expression and inducibility of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 and their responsiveness against cyclophosphamide (CPA) and organophosphorus pesticide monocrotophos, a known developmental neurotoxicant in human neural and glial cell lines. CPA induced significant expression of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in both types of cells in a time-dependent manner. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Differentiate toward Neural Cells in a Medium Dynamically Cultured with Schwann Cells in a Series of Polydimethylsiloxanes Scaffolds
The authors evaluated the neural differentiation potential effects of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth in a rat Schwann cell culture medium. [J Neural Eng] Abstract

Neural Stem Cells Derived from Human Parthenogenetic Stem Cells Engraft and Promote Recovery in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Scientists report the results of a 12-month transplantation study of human parthenogenetic stem cell derived neural stem cells in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned African green monkeys with moderate to severe clinical Parkinsonian symptoms. [Cell Transplant] Full Article

IDH2 Deficiency Promotes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity: Implications for Parkinson’s Disease
Scientists report that isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) regulates mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in MPP+/MPTP-induced dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells, and in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Down-regulation of IDH2 increased DA neuron sensitivity to MPP+; lowered IDH2 levels facilitated induction of apoptotic cell death due to elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. [Free Radic Res] Abstract

Indirect Effects of TiO2 Nanoparticle on Neuron-Glial Cell Interactions
Investigators found that ALT and BV-2 cells took up more nanoparticles (NPs) than N2a cells and caused lower cell viability. TiO2NPs induced IL-1β in the three cell lines and IL-6 in N2a. [Chem Biol Interact] Abstract

Aβ-Induced Insulin Resistance and the Effects of Insulin on the Cholesterol Synthesis Pathway and Aβ Secretion in Neural Cells
The authors found that neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells transfected with the human gene encoding amyloid-β protein precursor produced amyloid-β (Aβ) and exhibited insulin resistance by reduced p-Akt and a suppressed cholesterol-synthesis pathway following insulin treatment, and by increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit-1 at serine 612 as compared to parental N2a cells. [Neurosci Bull] Abstract

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Evaluating Cell Reprogramming, Differentiation and Conversion Technologies in Neuroscience
The scarcity of live human brain cells for experimental access has for a long time limited our ability to study complex human neurological disorders and elucidate basic neuroscientific mechanisms. A decade ago, the development of methods to reprogram somatic human cells into induced pluripotent stem cells enabled the in vitro generation of a wide range of neural cells from virtually any human individual. [Nat Rev Neurosci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
Seattle Children’s and Juno Therapeutics Accelerate T-Cell Immunotherapy Clinical Trials for Children and Adults with Deadly Brain Cancers
Seattle Children’s announced that it has signed a letter of intent with Juno Therapeutics, Inc., to expand their collaboration to accelerate the availability of T-cell immunotherapy clinical trials for children and adults with brain tumors, known as gliomas. [Seattle Children’s Hospital] Press Release

Neurotrope Enters Into Research Collaboration with the International Rett Syndrome Foundation/Rettsyndrome.org
Neurotrope, Inc. announced that it has entered into a research collaboration with the International Rett Syndrome Foundation, DBA: Rettsyndrome.org, to explore the potential of Bryostatin for the treatment of Rett syndrome. [Neurotrope, Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC.)] Press Release

BioLife Solutions and MNX Global Logistics Partner to Support ImmunoCellular Therapeutics with Cold Chain Logistics in ICT-107 Phase III Clinical Trial in Glioblastoma
BioLife Solutions, Inc. announced that through its biologistex joint venture, it will partner with MNX Global Logistics to support the registrational Phase III clinical trial being conducted by ImmunoCellular Therapeutics for their ICT-107 dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. [BioLife Solutions, Inc.] Press Release

DelMar Pharmaceuticals Announces Successful Completion of End-of-Phase II Meeting with FDA on VAL-083 for the Treatment of Refractory Glioblastoma Multiforme
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the successful completion of an End of Phase II meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). [DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

MJFF Supports Stem Cell Projects to Explore Therapies and Provide Research Tools
The Michael J. Fox Foundation (MJFF) announced funding for two projects leveraging the promise of engineered stem cells to speed new therapies and deeper understanding of Parkinson’s disease. [The Michael J. Fox Foundation] Press Release

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Overtime Pay for Postdoctoral Scientists Is Welcome — But Could Mean Fewer Positions
In a long-overdue revision of American overtime regulations, the Department of Labor explicitly included postdocs among those who are eligible for overtime pay if they earn less than $47,476 per year. [Nature News] Editorial

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NEW From Stem Cells to Human Development
September 25-28, 2016
Southbridge, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Principal Scientist and Team Lead (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Training Fellow – Signaling within Neural Stem Cell Niches In Vitro and In Vivo (Francis Crick Institute)

Scientific Communications and Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

PhD Student Positions – Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology/Neurosciences/Neurogenetics (University of Fribourg)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Neuroscience (McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Associate – Neuroscience (Yale University)

Investigators – Aging and Metabolism Research (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurodegenerative Disease Biology (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Position – Bioinformatics and Brain Transcriptomics (Cornell University)

Research Associate – Neuroscience (Indiana University)

Faculty Positions – Brain Research (IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research at Peking University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (University of Maryland Baltimore)

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