Volume 10.19 | May 18

Neural Cell News 10.19 May 18, 2016
Neural Cell News
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Fetal Mice with Zika Infection Get Microcephaly
Mouse fetuses injected with the Asian Zika virus strain and carried to term within their pregnant mothers displayed the characteristic features of microcephaly, researchers report. As expected, the virus infected the neural progenitor cells, and infected brains reveal expression of genes related to viral entry, altered immune response, and cell death. [Press release from Cell Press discussing online prepublication in Cell Stem Cell] Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
Free Wallchart from Nature Reviews Neuroscience on Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus Targeting the Radial Glial Cells Affects Cortex Development of Offspring Mice
Scientists showed a vertical transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in mice and a marked effect on fetal brain development. They found that intraperitoneal injection of a contemporary ZIKV strain in pregnant mice led to the infection of radial glia cells of dorsal ventricular zone of the fetuses, the primary neural progenitors responsible for cortex development, and caused a marked reduction of these cortex founder cells in the fetuses. [Cell Res] Full Article

The RNA Binding Protein IMP2 Preserves Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Preventing let-7 Target Gene Silencing
Investigators found that glioblastoma stem cells lack LIN28 and express both let-7 and their target genes, suggesting LIN28-independent protection from let-7 silencing. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Accumulation of Amyloid-β by Astrocytes Result in Enlarged Endosomes and Microvesicle-Induced Apoptosis of Neurons
To examine the role of astrocytes in amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, researchers added Aβ protofibrils to a co-culture system of primary neurons and glia. They demonstrated that astrocytes rapidly engulf large amounts of Aβ protofibrils, but then store, rather than degrade the ingested material. [Mol Neurodegener] Full Article

A Triple–Effect Cocktail Produced by Neural Stem Cells as a Novel Neurorepair Therapy for Chronic Stage CNS Autoimmunity
Scientists genetically engineered neural stem cells to produce a triply therapeutic cocktail comprising IL–10, NT–3, and LINGO–1–Fc, thus simultaneously targeting all mechanisms that underlie chronicity of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS): persistent inflammation, loss of trophic support for oligodendrocytes and neurons, and accumulation of neuroregeneration inhibitors. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Rapid Induction of Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Chemically Defined Hydrogel and Defined Cell Culture Medium
The authors describe a robust and simple method for generating cerebral organoids from human pluripotent stem cells by using a chemically defined hydrogel material and chemically defined culture medium. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

The Neurofilament-Derived Peptide NFL-TBS.40-63 Targets Neural Stem Cells and Affects Their Properties
Scientists showed that the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide targets neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro and in vivo when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid. Although neurosphere formation was not altered by the peptide, the NSC self-renewal capacity and proliferation were reduced and were associated with increased adhesion and differentiation. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Formylpeptide Receptors Promote the Migration and Differentiation of Rat Neural Stem Cells
Researchers report that formylpeptide receptor 1 (Fpr1) and Fpr2 are expressed on neural stem cells (NSCs) as detected with immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and WB assays. In addition, Fpr1 and Fpr2 promoted NSC migration through F-actin polymerization and skewed NSC differentiation to neurons. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Physiological Maturation and Drug Responses of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cortical Neuronal Networks in Long-Term Culture
The authors revealed the feasibility of long-term multi-electrode arrays measurements from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal networks in vitro for mechanistic analyses and drug screening. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Influence of Folic Acid on Neural Connectivity during Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurogenesis
To model the development of neural connectivity, the authors cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) taken from eight-day-old chick embryos in a range of pteroylmonoglutamate concentrations. DRGs were cultured for 36 hours, fixed and immunostained to reveal the locations of neural networks with synaptic vesicles. [Cells Tissues Organs] Full Article

Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
Functions and Mechanisms of Microglia/Macrophages in Neuroinflammation and Neurogenesis during Stroke
The authors summarize recent progress concerning the mechanisms involved in brain damage, repair and regeneration related to microglia/macrophage activation and phenotype transition during stroke. [Prog Neurobiol] Abstract

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FDA Grants IND Approval to Stemedica for a Traumatic Brain Injury Phase IIa Clinical Trial
Stemedica Cell Technologies, Inc. received an FDA investigational new drug (IND) approval for a United States-based, Phase IIa clinical study using its ischemic tolerant, adult allogeneic mesenchymal stem-cells to treat subjects with traumatic brain injury. [Stemedica Cell Technologies, Inc.] Press Release

GNT Pharma Receives IND Approval for Phase II Clinical Trial for Stroke Patients with Endovascular Treatment with First in Class Multi-Target Neuroprotection Drug Neu2000
GNT Pharma announced that the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety has approved the company’s Investigational New Drug (IND) application to initiate a Phase II clinical study of Neu2000 in ischemic stroke patients receiving endovascular therapy, a new interventional treatment to recanalize arteries and salvage the ischemic brain, within eight hours of onset. [GNT Pharma (Business Wire)] Press Release

Neuralstem Announces First Patient Enrolled in Phase II Clinical Trial in Major Depressive Disorder
Neuralstem, Inc. announced that the first patient has been enrolled in the double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-center Phase II study of NSI-189 for the treatment of major depressive disorder. [Neuralstem, Inc.] Press Release

NeOnc Technologies Announces Initiation of Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial of NEO100™ in Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
NeOnc Technologies, Inc. announced the initiation of its multi-center Phase I/IIa clinical trial of NEO100 with the first patient being treated at the Cleveland Clinic. [NeOnc Technologies, Inc.] Press Release

Newron Announces IND Approval for Sarizotan for Treatment of Rett Syndrome
Newron Pharmaceuticals S.p.A. announced that its Investigational New Drug (IND) application for the evaluation of sarizotan for the treatment of patients with Rett syndrome was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Newron Pharmaceuticals S.p.A.] Download Press Release

From our sponsor: Culturing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells? Download the technical bulletin.
House Committee Approves Bill to Expand Department of Defense Research into Brain Cancer
The House Committee on Appropriations approved legislation that provides for the inclusion of “brain cancer” among the disorders eligible for study by the Department of Defense’s Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program. [American Brain Tumor Association] Press Release

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cancer Stem Cell Conference 2016
September 20-23, 2016
Cleveland, United States

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NEW Scientific Communications and Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW PhD Student Positions – Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology/Neurosciences/Neurogenetics (University of Fribourg)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Neuroscience (McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Associate – Neuroscience (Yale University)

Investigators – Aging and Metabolism Research (Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurodegenerative Disease Biology (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Position – Bioinformatics and Brain Transcriptomics (Cornell University)

Research Associate – Neuroscience (Indiana University)

Faculty Positions – Brain Research (IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research at Peking University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (University of Maryland Baltimore)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience (Washington University in St. Louis)

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