Volume 10.15 | Apr 20

Neural Cell News 10.15 April 20, 2016
Neural Cell News
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Cell-Cycle-Independent Transitions in Temporal Identity of Mammalian Neural Progenitor Cells
Temporal changes in apical progenitor identity are thought to be responsible for neuronal diversity; however, the mechanisms underlying such changes remain largely unknown. Researchers performed single-cell transcriptome analysis of individual progenitors at different developmental stages, and identified a subset of genes whose expression changes over time but is independent of differentiation status. [Nat Commun] Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Polo Kinase Phosphorylates Miro to Control ER-Mitochondria Contact Sites and Mitochondrial Ca2+ Homeostasis in Neural Stem Cell Development
Investigators showed that Miro, a known component of the mitochondrial transport machinery, regulates Drosophila neural stem cell development through mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis control, independent of its role in mitochondrial transport. [Dev Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Fine Processes of Nestin-GFP–Positive Radial Glia-Like Stem Cells in the Adult Dentate Gyrus Ensheathe Local Synapses and Vasculature
The authors used light microscopy and electron microscopy to examine Nestin-GFP transgenic mice and provide a detailed ultrastructural reconstruction analysis of Nestin-GFP–positive radial glia-like cells of the dentate gyrus. They showed that their primary processes follow a tortuous path from the subgranular zone through the granule cell layer and ensheathe local synapses and vasculature in the inner molecular layer. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

WIP1 Modulates Responsiveness to Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Neuronal Precursor Cells and Medulloblastoma
Scientists found that PPM1D (WIP1) overexpression increased expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) target genes and cell proliferation in response to Shh stimulation in NIH3T3 and cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells in a p53-independent manner. [Oncogene] Abstract

Functional Characterization of DNA Methylation in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage
By integrating high-resolution methylomics, RNA-sequencing, and multiple transgenic lines, researchers defined the role of DNMT1 in developmental myelination. They detected hypermethylation of genes related to cell cycle and neurogenesis during differentiation of oligodendrocytes derived from progenitors (OPCs), yet genetic ablation of Dnmt1 resulted in inefficient OPC expansion and severe hypomyelination associated with ataxia and tremors in mice. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

PPARγ Is Activated during Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection and Inhibits Neuronogenesis from Human Neural Stem Cells
Researchers observed that human cytomegalovirus infection dramatically impaired the rate of neuronogenesis and strongly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) levels and activity. Consistent with these findings, levels of 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, a known PPARγ agonist, were significantly increased in infected neural stem cells from human embryonic stem cells. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Manifestation of Huntington’s Disease Pathology in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons
Generated Huntington’s disease GABAergic medium spiny-like neurons recapitulated disease pathology in vitro, as evidenced by mutant huntingtin protein aggregation, increased number of lysosomes/autophagosomes, nuclear indentations, and enhanced neuronal death during cell aging. [Mol Neurodegener] Full Article

Connexin 43 in Astrocytes Contributes to Motor Neuron Toxicity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Astrocytes isolated from SOD1G93A mice as well as human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes showed an increase in connexin 43 protein, which was found to be an endogenous phenomenon independent of neuronal co-culture. [Glia] Abstract

MHC-Class-II Are Expressed in a Subpopulation of Human Neural Stem Cells In Vitro in an IFNγ–Independent Fashion and during Development
Comparative analysis of immunogenicity of human embryonic/fetal brain-derived neural stem cells and human mesenchymal stem cells with neurogenic potential from umbilical cord and pediatric adipose tissue, while highlighting differences in their immunogenicity, led the authors to discover subsets of neural cells co-expressing the neural marker SOX2 and major histocompatibility antigens class-2 (MHC-II) antigen in vivo during human CNS development. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Effect of the PGD2-DP Signaling Pathway on Primary Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neuron Injury Caused By Aluminum Overload
The agonists and antagonists of DP receptor were used to examine whether the PGD2-DP signaling pathway affects neuronal function. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were prepared and treated with aluminum maltolate to establish the neuronal damage model. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Phosphatidylcholine Protects Neurons from Toxic Effects of Amyloid β-Protein in Culture
Researchers report the protective effect of phosphatidylcholine (PC) on primary cultured neurons against amyloid β-protein (Aβ)1-42-induced damage. Aβ1-42 caused neuronal death as demonstrated by lactose dehydrogenase release, which was completely prevented by a pretreatment with PC in a dose-dependent manner. [Brain Res] Abstract

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Cellular Models for Parkinson’s Disease
The authors describe for commonly used cell types and treatments the aspects of Parkinson’s disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. [J Neurochem] Full Article

Gene Therapy as a Potential Tool for Treating Neuroblastoma—A Focused Review
The authors provide an overview of the available options of gene therapy to treat neuroblastoma. [Cancer Gene Ther] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
DelMar Pharmaceuticals Updates Ongoing Phase I/II Refractory GBM Clinical Trial with VAL-083
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. presented updated data from an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial in refractory glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with its lead anti-cancer product candidate, VAL-083. [Press release from DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the American Association of Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting, New Orleans] Press Release

bluebird bio Reports Interim Clinical Data from Starbeam Study of Lenti-D™
bluebird bio, Inc. announced that interim data from the ongoing Phase II/III Starbeam Study evaluating the Lenti-D™ product candidate in pediatric patients with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy will be presented. [Press release from bluebird bio, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Annual Meeting, Vancouver] Press Release

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Burzynski Research Institute, Inc. Announces the Launch of a New Clinical Trial in Diffuse Intrinsic Brainstem Glioma
Burzynski Research Institute, Inc. announced that it has begun patient enrollment into an FDA-reviewed and IRB-approved, open-label, single-arm Phase II study of Antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 in patients > 3 months of age with a diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma. [Burzynski Research Institute, Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

Neurologist Recognized for Groundbreaking MS Research
Claudia Lucchinetti, M.D., will be awarded the 2016 John Dystel Prize for Multiple Sclerosis Research for her outstanding contributions to understanding and treating multiple sclerosis. [Mayo Clinic] Press Release | Video

Two Researchers to Receive $100,000 Potamkin Prize for Dementia Research
The American Academy of Neurology is awarding the 2016 Potamkin Prize for Research in Pick’s, Alzheimer’s and Related Diseases to Rosa Rademakers, PhD, of the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., and Bryan Traynor, MD, PhD, of the National Institutes of Health, and member of the American Academy of Neurology. [The American Academy of Neurology (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 24th Biennial European Association for Cancer Research (EACR) Congress
July 9-16, 2016
Manchester, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Research Associate – Neuroscience (Indiana University)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies)

Engineering Project Lead (Cytonome)

Faculty Positions – Brain Research (IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research at Peking University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (University of Maryland Baltimore)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience (Washington University in St. Louis)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (The Roskamp Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Brain Injury (Augusta University)

Principal Investigator Positions – Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders (Institutes of Brain Science Fudan University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Stem Cells, Oligodendrogenesis and Remyelination (UC Davis)

PhD Studentship – Various Projects (Hector Fellow Academy)

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