Volume 10.13 | Apr 6

Neural Cell News 10.13 April 6, 2016
Neural Cell News
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Spinal Cord Regeneration Might Actually Be Helped by Glial Scar Tissue, Contrary to Conventional Wisdom
In a study using mice, researchers found that the glial scar tissue that forms after spinal cord damage might actually favor nerve cell regeneration. The research could ultimately lead to new approaches to repair catastrophic spinal cord injury. [Press release from UCLA discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Complement and Microglia Mediate Early Synapse Loss in Alzheimer Mouse Models
Scientists showed in mouse models that complement and microglia mediate synaptic loss early in Alzheimer’s disease. C1q, the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade, is increased and associated with synapses before overt plaque deposition. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells
Researchers examined the expression of receptors implicated in cell entry of several enveloped viruses including Zika virus across diverse cell types in the developing brain. [Cell Stem Cell]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release | Editorial

Kappa Opioid Receptor Activation Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Promotes Oligodendrocyte-Mediated Remyelination
Scientists showed that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR did not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promoted oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Type I bHLH Proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 Restrict Neurite Branching and Synapse Formation by Repressing Neurexin in Postmitotic Neurons
The authors showed that the class I basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 are expressed in postmitotic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and mice, respectively, where they function to restrict neurite branching and synapse formation. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Predegenerated Schwann Cells–A Novel Prospect for Cell Therapy for Glaucoma: Neuroprotection, Neuroregeneration and Neuroplasticity
The authors created conditions to eliminate some of the barriers for precursor cells transplantation and allowed them to observe direct neuroprotective and pro-regenerative effects in ongoing optic neuropathy without additional modifications to the transplanted cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Transplantation of Defined Populations of Differentiated Human Neural Stem Cell Progeny
Researchers demonstrated a procedure for differentiating human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) in vitro, followed by isolation of the neuronal progeny. They transplanted undifferentiated hNPCs or a defined concentration of hNPC-derived neurons into mice, then compared these two groups with regard to their survival, proliferation and phenotypic fate. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Is a Functional Marker of Adult Hippocampal Precursor Cells
Researchers showed that the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 is expressed by a defined population of type 1 stem cells and type 2a precursor cells in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article

Retinal Organoids from Pluripotent Stem Cells Efficiently Recapitulate Retinogenesis
Scientists developed a protocol for the efficient generation of large, 3D-stratified retinal organoids that does not require evagination of optic-vesicle-like structures, which so far limited the organoid yield. [Stem Cell Reports] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Long Non-Coding RNA C2dat1 Regulates CaMKIIδ Expression to Promote Neuronal Survival through the NF-κB Signaling Pathway following Cerebral Ischemia
CAMK2D-associated transcript 1 (C2dat1) mRNA was upregulated in a time-dependent manner in mouse cortical penumbra after focal ischemic brain injury, which was accompanied by increased expression of CaMKIIδ at transcript and protein levels. The expression patterns of C2dat1 and CAMK2D were confirmed in mouse Neuro-2a cells in response to in vitro ischemia. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Autophagy Activation Prevents Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity in H4 Human Neuroglioma Cells
Investigators examined whether sevoflurane caused autophagy and its contributions to sevoflurane induced neuronal cell injury. [Acta Pharmacol Sin] Abstract

Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
Emergent Properties of Neural Repair: Elemental Biology to Therapeutic Concepts
The authors discuss the emergent principles of neural repair in stroke as they relate to scientific and therapeutic concepts in this field. [Ann Neurol] Abstract

Delivery of Therapeutic Proteins via Extracellular Vesicles: Review and Potential Treatments for Parkinson’s Disease, Glioma, and Schwannoma
Examples of protein delivery for therapeutic benefit in pre-clinical models include delivery of: catalase for Parkinson’s disease to reduce oxidative stress and thus help neurons to survive; prodrug activating enzymes which can convert a prodrug which crosses the blood–brain barrier into a toxic chemotherapeutic drug for schwannomas and gliomas; and the apoptosis-inducing enzyme, caspase-1 under a Schwann cell specific promoter for schwannoma. [Cell Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
ArmaGen Announces Initiation of Phase II Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trial in Brazil to Study AGT-181 for the Treatment of Hurler Syndrome
ArmaGen, Inc. announced that the first patient has been dosed with AGT-181 in a Phase II proof-of-concept clinical trial treating pediatric patients with Hurler syndrome in Brazil. [ArmaGen, Inc.] Press Release

Neuraltus Pharmaceuticals Announces Plans for Second Phase II Study of NP001 in ALS Using Biomarker for Enriched Patient Selection
Neuraltus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced plans to initiate a second Phase II study of its investigational treatment, NP001, in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [Neuraltus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Clinical Trial Involving Regenerative Cell Treatment for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Permitted in Japan
SanBio, Inc. announced that they are now able to conduct the world’s first global Phase II clinical trial for chronic traumatic brain injury with allogeneic stem cells in Japan. [SanBio, Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

Tetra Discovery Advances Alzheimer’s Treatment Candidate BPN14770 to Phase I Multiple Ascending Dose Trial
Tetra Discovery Partners announced that the company has successfully completed its initial Phase I single ascending dose study of BPN14770 safety in 32 healthy volunteers. BPN14770 is the company’s experimental treatment aimed at improving memory and slowing the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. [Tetra Discovery Partners (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

$50,000 Innovation Grant Awarded by New Jersey Health Foundation and The Nicholson Foundation Helps Secure Patent Advancing Research to Slow Parkinson’s Disease Brain Degeneration
With the support of a $50,000 Innovation Grant from New Jersey Health Foundation and The Nicholson Foundation, M. Maral Mouradian, M.D. a professor at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, has secured a patent that will advance research to slow brain degeneration in patients with Parkinson’s disease. [New Jersey Health Foundation] Press Release

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NEW International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 50th Anniversary Conference
June 7-10, 2016
Lyon, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Neurobiology and Therapeutics (Georgia Institute of Technology)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience (Washington University in St. Louis)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (The Roskamp Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Brain Injury (Augusta University)

Principal Investigator Positions – Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders (Institutes of Brain Science Fudan University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Stem Cells, Oligodendrogenesis and Remyelination (UC Davis)

Research Fellow Positions – Regenerative Therapies (Queen’s University Belfast)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Gene Control of Neural Network (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Circuits and Behavior (Rutgers University)

PhD Studentship – Various Projects (Hector Fellow Academy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pediatric Brain Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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