Volume 10.12 | Mar 30

Neural Cell News 10.12 March 30, 2016
Neural Cell News
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Stem Cells Used to Successfully Regenerate Damage in Corticospinal Injury
Researchers report that they have successfully directed stem cell-derived neurons to regenerate lost tissue in damaged corticospinal tracts of rats, resulting in functional benefit. They grafted multipotent neural progenitor cells into sites of spinal cord injury in rats. The stem cells were directed to specifically develop as a spinal cord, and they did so robustly, forming functional synapses that improved forelimb movements in the rats. [Press release from UC San Diego discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
LSD1 Mediates Neuronal Differentiation of Human Fetal Neural Stem Cells by Controlling the Expression of a Novel Target Gene, HEYL
Investigators present evidence that specific inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) suppresses the neurogenesis of cultured human fetal neural stem cells isolated from the human fetal neocortex. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Ghrelin Regulates Glucose and Glutamate Transporters in Hypothalamic Astrocytes
Researchers used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that acylated ghrelin rapidly stimulates glutamate transporter expression and glutamate uptake by astrocytes. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Conversion of Human Fibroblasts to Stably Self-Renewing Neural Stem Cells with a Single Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor
Scientists report that a single zinc-finger transcription factor, Zfp521, is sufficient for direct conversion of human fibroblasts into long-term self-renewable and multipotent neural stem cells. [Stem Cell Reports]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Benzothiazole Amphiphiles Promote the Formation of Dendritic Spines in Primary Hippocampal Neurons
The authors report the design and evaluation of a new class of benzothiazole amphiphiles that exhibit a dose-dependent response leading to an increase in dendritic spine density in primary hippocampal neurons. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Differentiation of Spiral Ganglion-Derived Neural Stem Cells into Functional Synaptogenetic Neurons
Researchers found that spiral ganglion neurons (SGN)-derived cells demonstrated neural stem cell (NSC) characteristics and differentiated into SGN-like glutamatergic neurons. Neurotrophins significantly increased neuronal differentiation and neurite length of SGN-NSC-derived neurons. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Differentiate to Neuron-Like Cells upon Inhibition of BMP Signaling
Investigators report that the genetic deletion of two members of the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) family, Bmp2 and Bmp4 in mouse bone marrow stromal cells causes their differentiation into cells with neuron-like morphology. [Differentiation] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Notch Signaling Activates Stem Cell Properties of Müller Glia through Transcriptional Regulation and Skp2-mediated Degradation of p27Kip1
Scientists examined Notch signaling-mediated activation of Müller glia (MG). They demonstrated that one of the targets of Notch signaling is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27Kip1, which is highly expressed in quiescent MG. [PLoS One] Full Article

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Impairs the Proliferation of C17.2 Neural Stem Cells via the Downregulation of GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling
The authors investigated the impact of PFOS exposure on the physiology of neural stem cells in vitro. They showed that PFOS exposure markedly attenuated the proliferation of C17.2 neural stem cells in both dose- and time-dependent manners. [J Appl Toxicol] Abstract

Glutamate Receptor Stimulation Up-Regulates Glutamate Uptake in Human Müller Glia Cells
Scientists investigated a plausible role of glutamate as a regulatory signal for its own transport in human retinal glia cells. They determined [3H]-D-aspartate uptake in cultures of spontaneously immortalized human Müller cells exposed to distinct glutamatergic ligands. [Neurochem Res] Abstract

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Modeling ALS with Motor Neurons Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
The authors discuss common developmental principles of both lower and upper motor neuron development that have led to specific derivation techniques. They then suggest how these motor neurons may be matured further either through direct expression or administration of specific factors or coculture approaches with other tissues. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Nurr1-Based Therapies for Parkinson’s Disease
The authors highlight the recent progress in preclinical studies of Nurr1-based therapies and discuss the outlook of this emerging therapy as a promising new generation of Parkinson’s disease medication. [CNS Neurosci Ther] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
Temple Researchers to Explore Ability of Novel Compounds to Protect Brain against HIV Infection with New NIH Grant
A group of compounds known as cannabinoid receptor type 2 agonists may be able to stop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder from developing, and, thanks to new funding from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, researchers at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University are poised to investigate that possibility. [Temple University] Press Release

The ALS Association and Prize4Life Announce Partnership to Expand ALS Research Web Community
The ALS Association and Prize4Life announced the launch of a joint partnership to expand the ALS Research Forum, a web-based news and resource portal for researchers interested in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). [The ALS Association] Press Release

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NEW Summit for Cancer Immunotherapy
June 26-29, 2016
Halifax, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience (Washington University in St. Louis)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (The Roskamp Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Brain Injury (Augusta University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neuroscience (University of Oslo)

Principal Investigator Positions – Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders (Institutes of Brain Science Fudan University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Stem Cells, Oligodendrogenesis and Remyelination (UC Davis)

Research Fellow Positions – Regenerative Therapies (Queen’s University Belfast)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Gene Control of Neural Network (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Circuits and Behavior (Rutgers University)

PhD Studentship – Various Projects (Hector Fellow Academy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pediatric Brain Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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