Volume 10.10 | Mar 16

Neural Cell News 10.10 March 16, 2016
Neural Cell News
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Autism-Associated SHANK3 Haploinsufficiency Causes Ih Channelopathy in Human Neurons
Investigators used engineered conditional mutations in human neurons and found that heterozygous and homozygous SHANK3 mutations severely and specifically impaired Ih channels. [Science] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
HDAC and PI3K Antagonists Cooperate to Inhibit Growth of MYC-Driven Medulloblastoma
Scientists used an animal model of MYC-driven medulloblastoma to screen for drugs that decrease viability of tumor cells. Among the most effective compounds were histone deacetylase inhibitors. [Cancer Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

The TLX-miR-219 Cascade Regulates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in Neurodevelopment and Schizophrenia iPSC Model
Researchers showed that the nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and self-renewal, inhibits miR-219 processing. miR-219 suppresses mouse NSC proliferation downstream of TLX. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Promotion of Mitochondrial Biogenesis by Necdin Protects Neurons against Mitochondrial Insults
Scientists identified necdin as a potent PGC-1α stabilizer that promotes mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α in mammalian neurons. Expression of genes encoding mitochondria-specific proteins decreases significantly in necdin-null cortical neurons, where mitochondrial function and expression of the PGC-1α protein are reduced. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Pharmacological Bypass of Cockayne Syndrome B Function in Neuronal Differentiation
Mutation of Cockayne syndrome B affects neuronal gene expression and differentiation, so scientists attempted to bypass its function by expressing downstream target genes. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

α-Tubulin Tyrosination and CLIP-170 Phosphorylation Regulate the Initiation of Dynein-Driven Transport in Neurons
The authors used in vitro reconstitution assays with single-molecule resolution, live-cell transport assays in primary neurons, computational image analysis, and computer simulations to investigate the factors regulating retrograde transport initiation in the distal axon. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Guiding Migration of Transplanted Glial Progenitor Cells in the Injured Spinal Cord
Scientists explored the possibility of producing a migratory stream of glial-restricted progenitors via directional cues to create a supportive pathway for axon regeneration. [Sci Rep] Full Article

P2Y4 Nucleotide Receptor in Neuronal Precursors Induces Glutamatergic Subtype Markers in Their Descendant Neurons
Investigators found that the expression of the nucleotide receptor P2Y4 was transiently augmented in the course of neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, which was after loss of pluripotency but prior to terminal differentiation of neurons. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Enrichment of Oligodendrocyte Progenitors from Differentiated Neural Precursors by Clonal Sphere Preparations
To make clonal neurospheres from human embryonic stem cell (ESC)/induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies, scientists found that a monolayer differentiation phase helps to increase the numbers of neural precursor cells. They compared a direct isolation of neural stem cells from human ESC/iPSCs colonies with monolayer neural differentiation, followed by clonal neural stem cell sphere preparations. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Pretreatment of Mouse Neural Stem Cells with Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 Interferes with NF-κB p65 Signaling and Suppresses Iron Overload-Induced Apoptosis
Researchers showed that iron overload induced apoptosis of C17.2 cells, a cell line originally cloned from mouse neural stem cells and immortalized by v-myc. Pretreatment with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 markedly protected C17.2 cells against iron overload in a dose-dependent manner. [Cell Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Free Wallchart from Nature Reviews Neuroscience on Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells
Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Modulation of Glial Cells in Alzheimer’s Disease
Since docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can modulate glial cell activity, the authors review the evidence about this modulation as well as the effect of docosanoids on neuroinflammation and in some Alzheimer’s disease (AD) models. The evidence supports peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ as a preferred target for gene modulation. The effective use of DHA and/or its derivatives in a subgroup of people at risk of developing AD is discussed. [J Neuroinflammation] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
BioInvent and Oncurious Partner with US Research Consortium to Accelerate Phase I/IIa Trial of TB-403
BioInvent International and Oncurious NV announced that the companies have signed a partnership with the Neuroblastoma and Medulloblastoma Translational Research Consortium (NMTRC). Accessing the NMRTC network of specialist clinicians will serve to accelerate the enrollment of patients to the planned Phase I/IIa trial of TB-403 in pediatric patients with rare but life threatening cancers; medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, and Ewing’s sarcoma. [BioInvent International AB] Press Release

FDA Grants Second Orphan Designation for VAL-083
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the FDA Office of Orphan Products Development has granted orphan drug designation for its lead product candidate, VAL-083, in the treatment of medulloblastoma. [DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Kleiner Family Research Initiative at Project ALS Aims for Answers
Project ALS announced a new research initiative, The Kleiner Family Research Initiative at Project ALS, which will focus intensively on two areas of therapeutic promise for ALS patients. [Project ALS] Press Release

SRI International Receives $19.8 Million National Cancer Institute Contract for PREVENT Cancer Program
SRI International has been awarded a contract of up to $19.8 million from the National Cancer Institute PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program to support the development of potential cancer preventive agents or vaccines. [SRI International] Press Release

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June 5-10, 2016
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Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neuroscience (University of Oslo)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies)

Principal Investigator Positions – Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders (Institutes of Brain Science Fudan University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Stem Cells, Oligodendrogenesis and Remyelination (UC Davis)

Research Fellow Positions – Regenerative Therapies (Queen’s University Belfast)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Gene Control of Neural Network (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Adult Neurogenesis and Brain Cancer (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Circuits and Behavior (Rutgers University)

PhD Positions – Cancer/Brain Tumor Research (Plymouth University)

Postdoctoral Fellow Positions – Neuroscience/Neuroimmunology (Stanford University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience)

PhD Studentship – Various Projects (Hector Fellow Academy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pediatric Brain Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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