Volume 10.08 | Mar 2

Newsletter Issue
Neural Cell News 10.08 March 2, 2016
Neural Cell News
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Loss of MHCI in Motor Neurons Leads to ALS Astrocyte Toxicity
Until recently, the role of astrocytes, glial cells that normally support motor neurons, in motor neuron death has been a mystery, but researchers shed new light on molecular mechanisms responsible for motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). [Press release from Nationwide Children’s Hospital discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
GSG1L Suppresses AMPA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission and Uniquely Modulates AMPA Receptor Kinetics in Hippocampal Neurons
The authors report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. [Nat Commun] Full Article

CPAP Promotes Timely Cilium Disassembly to Maintain Neural Progenitor Pool
Researchers report an unexpected role for the cilium in neural progenitor cells maintenance and identify centrosomal‐P4.1‐associated protein (CPAP) as a negative regulator of ciliary length independent of its role in centrosome biogenesis. [EMBO J] Full Article

MicroRNA-155 Regulates Alpha-Synuclein-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Models of Parkinson Disease
In primary microglia from microRNA-155−/− mice, the authors observed a markedly reduced inflammatory response to α-synuclein fibrils, with attenuation of major histocompatibility complex class II and proinflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. [J Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices
Investigators report a bright red fluorescent voltage indicator (fluorescent indicator for voltage imaging red; FlicR1) with properties that are comparable to the best available green indicators. FlicR1 faithfully reported single action potentials and tracks electrically driven voltage oscillations at 100 Hz in dissociated Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal neurons in single trial recordings. [J Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

Differentiation Induction of Mouse Neural Stem Cells in Hydrogel Tubular Microenvironments with Controlled Tube Dimensions
In this paper, a tubular 3D microenvironment created in a calcium alginate hydrogel microtube with respect to the effect of scaffold dimensions on the differentiation of mouse neuronal stem cells was evaluated. [Adv Healthc Mater] Abstract

Detection of Temperature Difference in Neuronal Cells
Researchers developed a novel method for sensing temperature in living cells based on the imaging technique of fluorescence of quantum dots. They applied the method to quantify the temperature difference in a human derived neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. [Sci Rep] Full Article

8-Oxoguanine Accumulation in Mitochondrial DNA Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Impairs Neuritogenesis in Cultured Adult Mouse Cortical Neurons under Oxidative Conditions
Scientists evaluated the contribution of MTH1 and OGG1 to the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction during neuritogenesis in vitro. They isolated cortical neurons from adult wild-type and Mth1/Ogg1-double knockout mice and maintained them with or without antioxidants for two to five days and then examined neuritogenesis. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Involvement of Cold Inducible RNA-Binding Protein in Severe Hypoxia-Induced Growth Arrest of Neural Stem Cells In Vitro
Scientists investigated the effects of 5, 3, and 1% oxygen exposure on neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. MTT, neurosphere assay, and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation revealed a quick growth arrest of C17.2 cells and primary NSCs induced by 1% oxygen exposure. [Mol Neurobiol] Full Article

Neuregulin-1 Attenuates Cognitive Function Impairments in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
According to Golgi-Cox staining, neuregulin (NRG)1 rescued the reduction in the number of dendritic spines detected in the brains of Tg2576 mice compared with vehicle-infused mice. This result was also corroborated in vitro as NRG1 attenuated the oligomeric amyloid beta peptide1-42-induced decrease in dendritic spine density in rat primary hippocampal neuron cultures. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Bidirectional Radial Ca2+ Activity Regulates Neurogenesis and Migration during Early Cortical Column Formation
Investigators demonstrated that Ca2+ fluxes propagate bidirectionally within the elongated fibers of radial glial cells, providing a novel communication mechanism linking the proliferative and postmitotic zones before the onset of synaptogenesis. [Sci Adv] Abstract

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TREM2 Variants: New Keys to Decipher Alzheimer Disease Pathogenesis
The authors discuss how triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) may control the microglial response to amyloid-β and its impact on microglial senescence, as well as the interaction of TREM2 with other molecules that are encoded by gene variants associated with Alzheimer disease and the hypothetical consequences of the cleavage of TREM2 from the cell surface. [Nat Rev Neurosci] Abstract

Sodium Channels in Astroglia and Microglia
The authors discuss the dynamics of sodium channel expression in astrocytes and microglia, and review evidence for noncanonical roles in effector functions of these cells including phagocytosis, migration, proliferation, ionic homeostasis, and secretion of chemokines/cytokines. [Glia] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
Stroke Patients Show Higher Rate of Recovery from MultiStem® Cell Therapy Studied at University Hospitals Case Medical Center
Data presented by Athersys indicated that stroke patients treated by an adult stem cell therapy called MultiStem® did significantly better than others who received a placebo one year after treatment. [Press release from University Hospitals Case Medical Center discussing research presented at the 2016 International Stroke Conference, Los Angeles] Press Release | Video

Potential Treatment for Huntington’s Disease, Found Effective, Safe in Mice, Monkeys
A drug that would be the first to target the cause of Huntington’s disease is effective and safe when tested in mice and monkeys, according to data. [Press release from the University of British Columbia (EurekAlert!) discussing research to be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 68th Annual Meeting, Vancouver] Press Release

Neurocrine Biosciences Announces the Acceptance of Three Scientific Abstracts for Valbenazine (NBI-98854)
Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc. announced that data from the Phase III Kinect 3 study of valbenazine for tardive dyskinesia will be presented during a plenary session. [Press release from the Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 68th Annual Meeting, Vancouver] Press Release

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Biochemist Funded to Study Stem Cell Therapies for Brain Injuries
Richard M. Gronostajski, PhD, professor of biochemistry, has been awarded a three-year, $1 million grant to study neural stem cell (NSCs) therapies for a variety of brain insults and injuries. The grant, funded by New York State Stem Cell Science, will allow researchers to study how to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs — with the ultimate goal of stimulating NSC function as a therapy. [University at Buffalo] Press Release

FLAG Therapeutics Announces the Granting of Orphan Drug Designation to FLAG-003 in Both the US and EU for the Treatment of Glioma
FLAG Therapeutics Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Office of Orphan Products Development and the European Medicines Agency have both granted Orphan Drug Designation to FLAG-003 for the treatment of glioma. [FLAG Therapeutics Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

La Jolla Institute Receives $5 Million Gift from Pfizer
La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology has received a $5 million gift, which will help establish the Mission Support for Cancer Immunology and Oncology Research. The Institute will use the majority of the funds to establish the Pfizer Endowed Chair in Cancer Immunology and Oncology and support research on the immune system and oncology. [La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology] Press Release

Juno Therapeutics, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Announce New Immuno-Oncology Clinical Trials Unit
Juno Therapeutics, Inc. and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center announced the creation of a new, best-in-class clinical trials unit dedicated to immuno-oncology. [Juno Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

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NEW The Stem Cell Niche 2016
May 22-26, 2016
Hillerod, Denmark

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Stem Cells, Oligodendrogenesis and Remyelination (UC Davis)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies)

Research Fellow Positions – Regenerative Therapies (Queen’s University Belfast)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Gene Control of Neural Network (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Adult Neurogenesis and Brain Cancer (Medical Research Council)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Circuits and Behavior (Rutgers University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Stem Cell Biology (University of Tromsø)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Brain Cancer (University of Oxford)

PhD Positions – Cancer/Brain Tumor Research (Plymouth University)

Postdoctoral Fellow Positions – Neuroscience/Neuroimmunology (Stanford University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Regulation/Function/Structure of the Synapse (National Institutes of Health)

PhD Studentship – Various Projects (Hector Fellow Academy)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pediatric Brain Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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