Volume 10.03 | Jan 27

Neural Cell News 10.03 January 27, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Myelin Cells Swing Along Blood Vessels to Traverse the Brain
The cells that create myelin, a fatty material that insulates nerve fibers in the brain’s white matter, migrate into the developing brain by climbing and swinging on blood vessels, according to new research. [Press release from UC San Francisco discussing online publication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
FREE Wallchart: Glioblastoma Multiforme
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Revisiting Adult Neurogenesis and the Role of Erythropoietin for Neuronal and Oligodendroglial Differentiation in the Hippocampus
In erythropoietin (EPO)-treated NG2-Cre-ERT2 mice, researchers confirmed enhanced differentiation of preexisting oligodendrocyte precursors in the absence of elevated DNA synthesis. In cultured neurospheres, EPO reduced Sox9 and stimulated miR124, associated with advanced neuronal differentiation. [Mol Psych] Full Article

Comprehensive Profiling Reveals Mechanisms of SOX2-Mediated Cell Fate Specification in Human ESCs and NPCs
Through genome-wide comparative studies, the authors showed that SOX2 executes its distinct functions in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and hESC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) through cell type- and stage-dependent transcription programs. [Cell Res] Full Article

LSD1 Co-Repressor Rcor2 Orchestrates Neurogenesis in the Developing Mouse Brain
Researchers demonstrated that Rcor2, a co-repressor of LSD1, is mainly expressed in the central nervous system and plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of cortical development. Depletion of Rcor2 results in reduced neural stem cell proliferation, neuron population, neocortex thickness and brain size. [Nat Commun] Full Article

A CREB-Sirt1-Hes1 Circuitry Mediates Neural Stem Cell Response to Glucose Availability
Scientists found that the expression of Hes-1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1) is modulated in neural stem and progenitor cells by extracellular glucose through the coordinated action of cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and Sirt-1 (Sirtuin 1), two cellular nutrient sensors. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

MicroRNA-125b Regulates Microglia Activation and Motor Neuron Death in ALS
Scientists uncovered an interplay between microRNA (miR)-125b and A20 protein in the modulation of classical NF-κB signaling in microglia. In particular, they established the existence of a pathological circuit in which termination of A20 function by miR-125b strengthens and prolongs the noxious P2X7 receptor-dependent activation of NF-κB in microglia, with deleterious consequences on motor neurons. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

Essential Role of Proteasomes in Maintaining Self-Renewal in Neural Progenitor Cells
Researchers investigated the role of proteasomes in self-renewal of neural progenitor cells. Through both in vivo and in vitro analyses, they found that the expression of proteasomes was progressively decreased during aging. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells
Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, the authors investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Advanced Biomaterial Strategies to Transplant Preformed Micro-Tissue Engineered Neural Networks into the Brain
Investigators advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-tissue engineered neural networks consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. [J Neural Eng] Full Article | Press Release

Amino Acid Receptors Are Modulated by Desensitized α7 Nicotinic Receptors in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons
Investigators explored the modulatory effect of desensitized α7-containing nicotinic receptors on excitatory and inhibitory amino acid receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons and identified the mechanism underlying this effect. [Acta Pharmacol Sin] Abstract

Engraftment of Enteric Neural Progenitor Cells into the Injured Adult Brain
Using different models of brain injury in combination with either local or systemic cell delivery, researchers showed that transplanted enteric neuronal progenitor cells survive, proliferate, and differentiate into neuronal and glial lineages in vivo. [BMC Neurosci] Full Article

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The Role of Adult Neurogenesis in Psychiatric and Cognitive Disorders
The authors explore the regulation and function of neural stem cells in rodents and humans, and the involvement of factors that contribute to psychiatric and cognitive deficits. [Brain Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.

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Neuralstem Presented Cell Therapy Update
Neuralstem, Inc. provided an update on the company’s ongoing NSI-566 cell therapy clinical programs. [Press release from Neuralstem, Inc. discussing research presented at the Phacilitate Cell & Gene Therapy World Conference, Washington D.C] Press Release

From our sponsor: Culturing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells? Download the technical bulletin.
MD Anderson, AbbVie Connect to Advance Cancer Immunotherapy
The immunotherapy platform at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and AbbVie will join forces to find new ways to unleash the immune system’s potential to fight cancer. The three-year collaboration agreement provides a framework for MD Anderson and AbbVie to efficiently choose and carry out preclinical and clinical studies evaluating new ideas in the cutting-edge area of immuno-oncology. [AbbVie Inc.] Press Release

Alkermes Announces Initiation of Phase I Clinical Study of New CNS Drug Candidate ALKS 7119
Alkermes plc announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical study of ALKS 7119, an oral, investigational drug candidate being developed for the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other central nervous system indications. [Alkermes plc] Press Release
Fattah Announces Increased Neuroscience Funding in FY16 Omnibus
Congressman Chaka Fattah announced that neuroscience funding he sought to be included in the FY 2016 omnibus bill will receive a significant boost above previous years’ levels. The National Science Foundation will receive $146.9 million in total funding for neuroscience—more than $40.5 million above the FY 15 funding level. [Congressman Chaka Fattah] Press Release

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Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW The Controlling Cancer Summit 2016
May 17-19, 2016
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow Positions – Neuroscience/Neuroimmunology (Stanford University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Regulation/Function/Structure of the Synapse (National Institutes of Health)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Cognitive Neurology (University Medical Center Gottingen)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neurobiology of Homeostasis (University of California San Francisco)

PhD Studentship – Clinical Vision & Neuroscience (University Medical Center Groningen)

Project Manager – Neurodegeneration and Stem Cell Science (Université du Luxembourg)

Group Leader – Neuroscience (Neuroscience in Bordeaux)

PhD Studentship – Various Projects (Hector Fellow Academy)

Neurogenetics Research and Clinical Genetic Counselor (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pediatric Brain Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

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